The paper below is exceptionally informative science by Professor Jamal Munshi. The examples used are helpful to understanding the statistical tools used. Since this work only involves two components of a single climate variable, CO2, the many other climate variables cancel out and may be ignored for the purpose of this work. This is extremely important because simultaneity bias, which should always be removed from the many entangled, interdependent climate variables but unfortunately has been rarely considered in climate studies, requires difficult math including many assumptions and uncertainties, which are not needed in this method. This is a home run.
Summarizing, the human contribution to CO2 by burning fossil fuels is so small that it has no measurable effect on the overall natural growth rate of CO2. By logical inference, human CO2 cannot have any measurable effect on global temperature.
Dr. Munshi is Professor Emeritus at Sonoma State University. He taught applied statistics in the Business Administration department. He earned a BS Chemical Engineering at San Jose State University, MS Chemical Engineering Colorado School of Mines, and PhD from University of Arkansas.
I have copied below only the abstract, introduction and conclusions. I strongly encourage you to take the time to read and consider the other sections of this excellent and brief paper including the excellent graphics and references. A link to the online paper is below where you can download a pdf version.
RESPONSIVENESS OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2 TO ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS:
8/8/2015, Revised 12/13/2015
ABSTRACT: A statistically significant correlation between annual anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the annual rate of accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere over a 53-year sample period from 1959-2011 is likely to be spurious because it vanishes when the two series are detrended. The results do not indicate a measurable year to year effect of annual anthropogenic emissions on the annual rate of CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere.1
The theory of anthropogenic global warming is that since 1750, human activity, involving the use of fossil fuels, the manufacture of cement, and changes in land use, has been injecting an artificial flow of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere at such an accelerated rate that it has overwhelmed nature’s delicate carbon balance and caused a steadily rising unnatural and unprecedented accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The change in atmospheric composition has enhanced its greenhouse effect causing surface temperatures to rise unnaturally and dangerously and threaten catastrophic consequences in terms of climate change (Hansen, 2006) (IPCC, 2007) (IPCC, 2014) (Plass, 1956). An important policy implication is that since these changes were created by artificial means they can also be moderated by artificial means simply by making significant reductions in our emissions of CO2 (IPCC, 2014).
Since the recent accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is ascribed solely to human emissions, a testable implication of the theory of anthropogenic global warming is that there should be a close correlation between the rate of anthropogenic emissions and the rate at which CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere; and this correlation should be observable at the inter-annual frequency level (Patra, 2005) (Raupach, 2008) (Keeling, 2001) (Plass, 1956) (Lorius, 1990). This means that, net of long term trends, we should find that years of higher annual emissions should correspond with years of greater annual increase in atmospheric CO2 and years of lower emissions should correspond with years of lower rates of accumulation of atmospheric CO2. In this short note, we test this hypothesis by applying detrended correlation analysis, a tool that is often used by financial analysts to detect higher frequency changes net of long term trends (Prodobnik, 2008) (Granger, 1964) (Haan, 2002). The method tests the relationship between two variables that share a common direction in their long term drift in time by removing the drift component and comparing the detrended series in terms of correlation at shorter intervals. When applied to atmospheric CO2, this procedure shows that the correlation between the annual rate at which anthropogenic emissions are introduced into the atmosphere and the annual rate at which CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, though significant, does not survive into the detrended series and is therefore likely to be spurious or an artifact of the common direction of their long term drift in time to which no anthropogenic cause can be ascribed.
- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
A necessary condition for the theory of anthropogenic global warming is that there should be a close correlation between annual fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 and the annual rate of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Data on atmospheric CO2 and anthropogenic emissions provided by the Mauna Loa measuring station and the CDIAC in the period 1959-2011 were studied using detrended correlation analysis to determine whether, net of their common long term upward trends, the rate of change in atmospheric CO2 is responsive to the rate of anthropogenic emissions in a shorter time scale from year to year. It was found that the observed correlation between these variables derives solely from a common direction in their long term trends and not from a correspondence in their annual fluctuations. As a corollary to this finding, a further study reveals that change in atmospheric CO2 is responsive to surface temperature both in long term trends and in short term annual fluctuations. The results have significant implications for interpreting the observed increase in atmospheric CO2 in terms of the climate system and the theory of anthropogenic global warming.
All data and computational details used in this note may be downloaded from its online data archive (Munshi, 2015).