How to Start a War: Victor Davis Hanson


Victor Davis Hanson

Posted: Apr 15, 2021 11:15 AM

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Checkers

Republicans prior to and during the civil war were anti-slavers (abolitionists).

Ending slavery was the primary reason the Republican Party, known as the GOP or Grand Old Party, was founded. Among many other despicable Democrat actions, a Democrat member of the U.S. House of Representatives beat senseless a Republican Senator while the Senator was speaking on the floor of the U.S Senate against slavery, an injury from which the GOP Senator never recovered. But the problem today is not about a political party. The problem is the government has lost the trust of the people they are duty bound to serve.

There are two political parties in the USA, the Democrat party or DNC and the Republican party or RNC. They have proven by their actions and inaction that the difference between them today is inconsequential. Neither party is capable or interested in doing the right thing for the people. The two parties are fighting each other about control and power of the purse strings of the U.S. government, which in their minds permits any action or words no matter how immoral to get themselves re-elected. The end justifies the means, and they are the ones we have been waiting for, or so they believe.

The de-facto opposing party, the real opposition, is “We the People” and so far we are unorganized, but much, much larger in numbers. We see Democrats and Republicans hiding behind barricades and wire fences surrounding Washington, D.C. and armed National Guard troops. They are protecting themselves against the people who object to the crisis and result that Democrats and Republicans created. Democrats and Republicans are displaying their weakness to the world.

We the People must be concerned by the weakness of Democrats and Republicans. There is a solid argument that a time of weakness such as this is a good time for the people to reform their government, whether by term limits, Constitutional Convention or by revolution. The Declaration and Constitution were written when the colonies were under attack, not in a time of peace and tranquility. Today however, foreign governments already see the weakness and they are already moving troops, ships and cyber assets to exploit that weakness.

Democrats take America into major wars. Civil War, WWI, WWII, Korean War, Vietnam War. Democrats are authoritarian. It must be their way, or there will be a fight or total appeasement. The hard work of deal making is not the Democrat way. Their way is the only right way and their end justifies the means. Customers refuse such authoritarian deals and dealers and instead become enemies. Democrats and Republicans do not hesitate to instigate wars between two other countries or overthrow other governments; they are proud of doing that and write books about it, laugh about it, thinking they are Machiavelli playing on a grand chessboard. “We came, we saw, he died,” Hillary Clinton and her cronies laughed. And then they are angry and overreact when inevitably an opponent uses that tactic.

The puppet Biden regime is in place only 4 months and China is ready for war against Taiwan, and Taiwan expects via expired treaty that U.S. and allies will come to their aid, while Russia is ready for war against Ukraine, and Ukraine expects U.S. and NATO will come to their aid. Iran – encouraged by Biden regime appeasement and desire to renew the Obama Kerry nuke treaty that Iran never signed – now has done a deal with China intended to prevent Israel or anyone else from destroying Iran’s nuclear capability.  Also, it is no surprise Iran is threatening Israel since Palestine rebels, though repulsed by Islam nations, are again receiving U.S. funding with which they compensate the families of suicide bombers and murderers. You cannot fix stupid.

Meanwhile, the puppet Joe Biden who is responsible for this mess has difficulty stringing three words together. After illicitly taking office due to cyber warfare executed by foreigners against Americans in the 2020 election … and the entire world, friends and enemies know that …the puppet Biden regime is a real national security risk, arguably a world security risk.

An honest President and Congress and Supreme Court would have immediately investigated the 2020 election and accepted the consequences. But each turned their back on the people after going along with two impeachments of President Trump based on far less evidence, and after investigations of the 2016 U.S. elections revealed election systems in all 50 states were attached to the internet and many were hacked.

It would be obvious to a legitimate President and Congress that neither have the political backing to fight two or three foreign wars. The Biden-caused renewed and ongoing invasion of illegal aliens into the U.S. while trying to lockdown the people by a pandemic scheme further erodes trust in government.

The U.S. federal government has lost the respect of the people, and lost the respect of several big state governments, and many foreign governments. The people will not fight the Democrat wars ahead and our foreign opponents know that. By all appearances, the puppet Biden regime is working to defeat America and bring us to our knees while Republicans are diddling themselves in their own sandbox.

Eventually, there will be a unified mindset among the people for no taxation without real representation. The government will have to step down or else it will be taken down. It is not a threat, it is a prediction based on history. The rules of checkers do not change.


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Kill Chain: The Cyber War on America’s Elections. One hour thirty minute high quality documentary on the cyber corruption of the 2016 U.S. election including comments and testimony by Democrats prior to the 2020 election acknowledging that the election interference by foreign entities and that voting machines are attached to the internet and easily hacked.

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Beware

Democrats have led America and its allies into WWI, WWII, Korean War, Vietnam War, etc. Beware! Beware!

And now they are leading us into financial war.

Be Prepared!

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Imagine this “vaccine”

Imagine this scenario,

A completely healthy healthcare worker injects something experimental and dies the next day.

A normal person with some intelligence can figure out what happened but somehow the autopsy shows nothing had to with the experimental injection and the death certificate goes off as due to natural causes.

In this scenario, it is not about proving the cause of death which any idiot on this planet can figure out on its own. I think instead what one should do is to start questioning the structure that is place and expose it.

There are questions you can ask that will shake the corrupt structure such as who are these people in these positions? Who hired them? Are these people following orders? Why? Who is in charge? Brown envelopes exchanged?

These are few of the questions to be asked in Social media, around the dinner table, when talking with your friends, when you see a your local law enforcement.

These are questions that demand answers.

Once in open it will be easier to root out these feckers. Because honestly, the problem is not the injection that killed the health care worker, it is the people behind it covering it up. And as long as these idiots think they get away with it you will not see any change.

https://www.linkedin.com/in/elias-sare-b69a7a64/https://www.linkedin.com/posts/elias-sare-b69a7a64_imagine-this-scenario-a-completely-healthy-activity-6780071880025014273-v6bB/

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The Democratic Republic vs. the Aristocracy

Posted on May 17, 2010 by Ron Pavellas

“… I love you with all my heart, and pray for the continuance of your life until you should be tired of it yourself.”

Thus ends the letter of 15 August 1820 from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, the men having achieved, respectively, the ages of 77 and 85. They had not quite another six years to live and died on the same day, exactly 50 years after they had signed the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain.

Jefferson’s effusive salutation is remarkable in two ways, at least. Jefferson was ever the withdrawn, introverted, land wealthy (and cash poor) statesman of both the Colony and the State of Virginia who usually wrote from his head after much deliberation; whereas, Adams was the loquacious, argumentative and extroverted farmer-lawyer of Massachusetts who wrote from the heart quite freely.

Also, the depth of their affection for each other this late in their lives belies the severe break in relations that resulted in a hiatus of over eight years in their correspondence, between 1804 and 1812.

“…we ought not to die before we have explained ourselves to each other.”—Jefferson to Adams

This is my second writing about the treasure these men left us in their letters between years 1777 and 1826. My article of 3 February 2010 covered the letters in a general way. Today’s article presents what both saw as an enemy of a democratic republic, the aristocracy, but they never fully agreed on a remedy or how to prevent its ascendancy.

They first discussed this subject while both were diplomats; Adams represented the new United States of America in London (1785 -1788) and Jefferson, similarly, in Paris (1784 – 1789). Jefferson visited Adams at the British Embassy of the USA, commonly called, then and now, Grosvenor Square, London.

(From JA to TJ, 1 Mar 1787): A work upon the subject you mention, nobility in general [i.e., the aristocracy], which I once hinted to you a wish to see handled at large would… require many books which I have not, and a more critical knowledge both of ancient and modern languages than at my age a man can aspire to. There are but two circumstances, which will be regretted by me, when I leave Europe. One is the opportunity of searching any questions of this kind, in any books [in England and France] that may be wanted, and the other will be the interruption of that intimate correspondence with you, which is one of the most agreeable events in my life.

Twenty-six years later, the two began an intense correspondence on the subject that lasted one and one-half years.

(JA to TJ, 9 July 1813): I recollect, near 30 years ago to have said carelessly to you, that I wished I could find time and means to write something upon aristocracy…I soon began, and have been writing upon that subject ever since…Your “άριστοι” [“aristoi—aristocrats”] are the most difficult animals to manage…They will not suffer themselves to be governed. They not only exert all their own subtle industry and courage, but they employ the commonality, to knock to pieces every plan and model that the most honest architects in legislation can invent to keep them within bounds…But who are these “άριστοι”? Who shall judge? Who shall select these choice spirits from the rest of the congregation? Themselves? We must first find out and determine who themselves are. Shall the congregation choose? Ask Xenophon…[who] says that the ecclesia [popular assembly] always chooses the worst men they can find because none others will do their dirty work. This wicked motive is worse than birth or wealth.

Here I want to quote Greek again…[from] a collection of moral sentences from all the most ancient Greek poets. In one.. [is] a couplet the sense of which was “Nobility in men is worth as much as it is in horses, assess, or rams: but the meanest blooded puppy in the world, if he begets a little money, is as good a man as the best of them.” Yet birth and wealth together have prevailed over virtue and talents in all ages. The many will acknowledge no other “άριστοι”.

“Your distinction between natural and artificial aristocracy does not appear to me as well founded.”—Adams to Jefferson

So began five letters from Adams to Jefferson before the latter sent a lengthy and famous response to Adams on the subject of the aristocracy, after which Adams wrote a final letter, the beginning of which states: “We are now explicitly agreed, in one important point, viz. that ‘there is a natural aristocracy among men, the grounds of which are virtue and talents.’ ”

But where did they differ? This will be discussed, further below.

First, we must look at what these men meant by The Aristoi, an ancient Greek construction with which they were familiar as scholars in the writings and philosophies of that time. Immediately below are excerpts from two sources to give us a grounding in what these men were discussing.

Arete and the Aristoi

Arete…means goodness, excellence, or virtue of any kind. In its earliest appearance in Greek, this notion of excellence was ultimately bound up with the notion of the fulfillment of purpose or function: the act of living up to one’s full potential. Arete in ancient Greek culture was courage and strength in the face of adversity and it was to what all people aspired. [Source]

The concept of arete, or excellence, was one of the Homeric Age’s most important contributions to Western culture…(T)he nobility is the prime mover in forming a nation’s culture, and…the aristoi, or “the best,” are responsible for the creation of a definite idea of human perfection, an ideal toward which they are constantly educated. Arete became the “quintessence of early aristocratic education,” and thereafter the dominant concept in all Greek education and culture; it has remained with us as an educational ideal ever since.

It was not possible to separate leadership from arete, the Greeks believed, because unusual or exceptional prowess was a natural manifestation of leadership. Since each man was ranked in accordance with his ability, arete became an ideal of self-fulfillment or self-realization in terms of human excellence. A noble’s arete, in Homer, is specifically indicated by his skill and prowess as a soldier in war, and as an athlete in peace. War provides the occasion for the display of arete and the winning of kleos, or glory. The aristoi compete among themselves “always to be the best and to be superior to others.” [Source: thinkquest]

Definitions of Monarchy, Aristocracy and Democracy in Modern Times, from a paper by Paul Lucardie, then at the University of Groningen, Netherlands, to give us a current context in which to understand our subject  [Please click on the table to be able to read it]:

 

Please Click for Clarity

The Letters Between Adams and Jefferson on the Aristocracy

Adams wrote to Jefferson on 2 September 1813: “The five pillars of aristocracy are beauty, wealth, birth, genius and virtues. Any one of the first three can at any time overbear any one or both of the two last,” and goes on to give historical and contemporary examples.

Jefferson counters that he has faith in the enlightenment of men through science, and in the well-functioning democratic principles and machinery they and their fellow writers of the U.S. Constitution established, especially regarding regular elections:

Science is progressive, and talents and enterprise on the alert. Resort may be had to the people of the country, a more governable power from their principles and subordination; and rank, and birth, and tinsel-aristocracy will finally shrink into insignificance… (I)f the moral and physical conditions of our own citizens qualifies them to select the able and good for the direction of their government, with the recurrence of elections at such short periods as will enable them to displace an unfaithful servant before the mischief he mediates may become irredeemable.

The mostly formal style of their writing (Adams occasionally lapsed into a more familiar style) sometimes masks, for the modern eye, the fundamental disagreement between these statesmen on the issue. Adams was the Federalist, perceiving a strong federal (i.e., central) government as necessary to “control” the natural appetites of man toward power and privilege. He had no confidence that those with natural born talent (sometimes called “genius”)  and “virtues,” derived through family traits and education, who ascended as “natural aristocracy” would not become as corrupt as those who ascended through wealth, beauty or name–the latter group being the “tinsel aristocracy” as described by Jefferson.

Obituary for John Adams and Thomas Jefferson (source: /media.photobucket.com)

Jefferson had faith in the common sense of the ordinary citizen to vote out the misbehaving elected officials before they could do irreparable damage. Further, he did not place as much importance on the doings of the central government, observing that the limitless frontier then offered by America made the enterprising man relatively independent of the aristocratic tendencies of those in power in the country’s capital.

[The text is not edited to conform with modern English usage] With respect to Aristocracy, we should further consider that, before the establishment of the American states, nothing was known to History but the Man of the old world, crouded within limits either small or overcharged, and steeped in the vices which that situation generates. A government adapted to such men would be one thing; but a very different one that for the Man of these states. Here every one may have land to labor for himself if he chuses; or, preferring the exercise of any other industry, may exact for it such compensation as not only to afford a comfortable subsistence, but where-with to provide for a cessation from labor in old age. Every one, by his property, or by his satisfactory situation, is interested in the support of law and order. And such men may safely and advantageously reserve to themselves a wholsome controul over their public affairs…

What is unstated by Jefferson in this correspondence is his underlying acceptance, perhaps even approval, of the occasional revolution to cleanse the ruling elite. Jefferson was enthusiastic about the French Revolution to which he was a direct witness, although he acknowledged that its latter stages went to bloody excess. This was a point of contention and public controversy between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans in the election of 1800 between Adams and Jefferson.

Jefferson famously wrote from Paris to William S. Smith on 13 November 1787:

We have had 13. states independent 11. years. There has been one rebellion. That comes to one rebellion in a century & a half for each state. What country before ever existed a century & half without a rebellion? & what country can preserve it’s liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon & pacify them. What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots & tyrants. It is it’s natural manure.

There is much reference these days to the thoughts and intentions of the “founding fathers.” I suggest a reading of these letters would help us all truly understand where the founders stood on issues of freedom and liberty, government and democracy.

You can see all the letters (to everyone) of Thomas Jefferson here.

Ron’s bog is here. Trust me, it is better in the original with pictures in place and all of that. Go there:

https://pavellas.com/2010/05/17/democratic-republicanism-vs-%CE%AC%CF%81%CE%B9%CF%83%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%B9-the-aristocracy/?replytocom=29598

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The Biden puppet regime, Israel, Jews and Muslims

Biden State Department Claims It’s ‘Historical Fact’ That Israel Occupied ‘Palestinian Territories’ in 1967

Robert Spencer Apr 08, 2021 8:48 AM ET in PJMedia.com

According to a Thursday report in Al-Monitor, Biden State Department wonk Ned Price claimed at a press conference: “It is a historical fact that Israel occupied the West Bank, Gaza and the Golan Heights after the 1967 war.” Price thus signaled once again that Biden’s handlers plan to take up the Obama administration’s betrayal of Israel and support for the Palestinian jihad in a big way. But the central claim is wrong: contrary to the propaganda that inundates the world every day, Israel did not occupy “Palestinian Territories” in 1967 or at any other time.

Price and his colleagues in the Biden State Department don’t know, or don’t want you to know, that the “West Bank” (that is, Judea and Samaria) and Gaza were part of the original post-World War I Mandate for Palestine, set aside for a Jewish national home. Not only that, but between 1949 and 1967, when they were under Jordanian and Egyptian rule, nothing was ever said about how they were occupied “Palestinian” territory; in fact, there was no mention made of the “Palestinians” at all, as they were not invented until the 1960s, as a rhetorical stick to beat Israel with. After the 1967 war, Israel was occupying land to which only Israel, among all the countries of the world, had any legal claim. Find out more about this in The Palestinian Delusion.

Palestinian spokesmen have again and again made it clear that the Qur’an and Islam in general, not quarrels over various patches of land or occupation or settlements, are what make the Israeli-Palestinian conflict intractable. A Qatari sheikh, Muhammad Al-Muraikhi, stated this plainly on Qatar TV back on January 9, 2009. “We do not treat the Jews as our enemies just because they occupied Palestine,” he explained, “or because they occupied a precious part of our Arab and Islamic world. We will treat the Jews as our enemies even if they return Palestine to us because they are infidels. They rejected Allah and His messengers.”

An Egyptian imam, Muhammad Hussein Ya’qoub, declared eight days after that in a televised sermon that Muslim hatred of Jews had nothing to do with Israel and everything to do with the Qur’an:

If the Jews left Palestine to us, would we start loving them? Of course not. We will never love them. Absolutely not. The Jews are infidels—not because I say so, and not because they are killing Muslims, but because Allah said: “The Jews say that Uzair is the son of Allah, and the Christians say that Christ is the son of Allah. These are the words from their mouths. They imitate the sayings of the disbelievers before. May Allah fight them. How deluded they are.” [Qur’an 9:30] It is Allah who said that they are infidels.

Your belief regarding the Jews should be, first, that they are infidels, and second, that they are enemies. They are enemies not because they occupied Palestine. They would have been enemies even if they did not occupy a thing. Allah said: “You shall find the strongest men in enmity to the disbelievers to be the Jews and the polytheists.” [Qur’an 5:82] Third, you must believe that the Jews will never stop fighting and killing us. They [fight] not for the sake of land and security, as they claim, but for the sake of their religion: “And they will not cease fighting you until they turn you back [from] your religion, if they can.” [Qur’an 2:217] This is it. We must believe that our fighting with the Jews is eternal, and it will not end until the final battle—and this is the fourth point. You must believe that we will fight, defeat, and annihilate them, until not a single Jew remains on the face of the Earth.

Ya’qoub’s peroration was just as chilling:

As for you Jews—the curse of Allah upon you. The curse of Allah upon you, whose ancestors were apes and pigs. You Jews have sown hatred in our hearts, and we have bequeathed it to our children and grandchildren. You will not survive as long as a single one of us remains.

Also on Egyptian television on the same day, January 17, 2009, two other Muslim clerics, Sheik Said Al-Afani and Sheik Muhammad Abd Al-Salam, reiterated that the war against Israel was all about Islamic imperatives. The Jews, said Al-Afani, “are the accursed people, who incurred the wrath of Allah. They are the offspring of snakes and vipers, the slayers of our Prophet Muhammad, whose death was a consequence of his being poisoned by a Jewish woman.”

Contradicting the accepted wisdom in the West, he continued: “Our hatred of them is purely on religious grounds, and not because of the pure, sacred land, which was blessed by Allah, or because of Gaza…not only because of Al-Aqsa and so on. We hate them, first and foremost, because of their enmity towards Allah, and because they slayed our prophets.”

Then Muhammad Abd Al-Salam added: “Let me clarify that it is our duty to hate them, as part of our faith.” To this Al-Afani readily agreed. Al-Salam explained: “People have become confused about this. Some think that it is a territorial or a national issue, or that it has to do with the blessed Al-Aqsa Mosque, but the issue is much broader—it is a matter of faith. We are obligated to hate them because they are a murderous people, and the enemies of all that is good and of Islam.”

On October 5, 2018, on Not a Neighbor, a program on official Palestinian Authority television, Sharia judge Muhannad Abu Rumi likewise denounced the idea that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is about territory and could thus be subject to negotiations:

People could be deluded or think…that we have no way out with the Jews…. The liberation of this land is a matter of faith, which will happen despite everyone. The Jews leaving this land is a divine decree…. The war is not only over this strip of land, as you all know the Jews want everything and not just a part. They want to subjugate us, and that we be slaves to their command…

A week later, during a Friday sermon at the Islamic Center of South Florida, Imam Hasan Sabri offered a succinct encapsulation of the principle of “Drive them out from where they drove you out” (Qur’an 2:191): “If a land is occupied or plundered, it should be liberated from its occupiers and plunderers, even if this leads to the martyrdom of tens of millions of Muslims.”

Turning to Trump’s offer to the Palestinians, “the Deal of the Century,” Sabri ridiculed the very idea of negotiations: “Take the Palestinian cause, for example. It is not being plotted against with a deal they call ‘the Deal of the Century.’ Why do they call it a ‘deal’? Because whoever is involved in this treason is not a man of principles. These are peddlers, not men with a cause. All they want are positions and jobs. That is why for them, the cause is nothing but a deal, a matter of give and take. For them, it is nothing but a deal.”

To this, Sabri contrasted the “position of a believing Muslim about the Palestinian cause,” which he characterized in this way: “That Palestine in its entirety is Islamic land, and there is no difference between what was occupied in 1948 and 1967. There is no difference between this village or that village, this city or that city. All of it is Islamic waqf land that was occupied by force. The responsibility for it lies with the entire Islamic nation, and the [Palestinians] should benefit from this land. If a land is occupied or plundered, it should be liberated from the occupiers and plunderers, even if this leads to the martyrdom of tens of millions of Muslims. This is the ruling, and there is no room for discussion or concessions.”

Another imam told a Muslim audience in November 2018 that while the struggle against Israel is an Islamic cause, this is best kept hidden for public relations purposes. At a “Workshop for Palestine” hosted by American Muslims for Palestine at the Islamic Center of Union County, New Jersey (ICUCNJ), on November 17, 2018, ICUCNJ Imam Sa’id Elkasaby explained: “Although our cause is Islamic, when we market and present it to people, I believe that it should be presented as a ‘humanitarian cause.’ If I talk to Jews and tell them that my cause is Islamic, they’re out. It’s over. They won’t support me because they’re Jews and I’m a Muslim. The same is true when I tell a Christian that my cause is Islamic. When I tell him that my cause is humanitarian, it means that every human being must acknowledge that truth. I know that I have the right to Palestine, but I want to be supported by everybody—by the Muslims, the Christians, the Chinese, the Sikhs, and the nonreligious. They will all support my cause because all humans will support my cause. I am a human being. I have rights. I own a land. So I present this cause to people…. If we keep telling the Americans that our cause is Islamic, only the Muslims will support us. The non-Muslims will not support us. So I want to generalize the cause so everybody will sympathize with us.”

And here we are. “Palestinians” and their allies told Biden, Price, and the rest that their land was “occupied,” and that all that was involved was a simple land dispute, and they credulously believed. Mission accomplished. The Palestinians’ befuddled American benefactors will start writing checks shortly.

Robert Spencer is the director of Jihad Watch and a Shillman Fellow at the David Horowitz Freedom Center. He is author of 21 books, including the New York Times bestsellers The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and the Crusades) and The Truth About Muhammad. His latest book is Rating America’s Presidents: An America-First Look at Who Is Best, Who Is Overrated, and Who Was An Absolute Disaster.

Read more by Robert Spencer

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Proof the 2020 election was stolen, nationwide, by a computer cyber attack

Proof the 2020 election was stolen by a cyber attack, nationwide, from the top of the ballot to the bottom. This was a crime against America. This is not about a political party and not only about the presidential election.

https://rumble.com/vf8c6v-scientific-proof.html

Share this and pass it on.

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Quote from Professor Richard’s Lindzen’s zoom lecture on Wednesday

I hope some of your were able to tune in for Professor Richard Lindzen’s zoom lecture and Q&A on Wednesday.  The sponsors, Clintel Foundation in Dublin, said they will re-record the lecture.  If you want the link to the lecture, let me know and I will send you a link when I receive it.

As usual with his lectures, there are many take away quotes.  This is one that will be immediately useful:

“Stop treating it [i.e. AGW…human-caused global warming/climate change] as a worthy opponent.  Do not ascribe reasonableness to the other side.  It is not reasonable, not true, not even plausible.”

~ Richard Lindzen, Professor Emeritus, Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  (31 March 2021. Zoom call Clintel Foundation)

29 minute lecture

Curriculum Vitae

                                                                       Richard Siegmund Lindzen

Home:   301 Lake Avenue Newton, MA 02461   (617) 332-4342   Work:   Bldg. 54, Room 1410 M.I.T. Cambridge, MA 02139   (617) 253-2432 Fax: (617) 253-6208 Email: rlindzen@mit.edu

Date of Birth:  8 February 1940

Place of Birth: Webster, Massachusetts                                

Grew up in the Bronx                                                                    

Married with two sons; wife’s name is Nadine

EDUCATION:                                                                                                                                     

Bronx High School of Science, 1956

Attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1956-58)

A.B. (mcl) in Physics, l960, Harvard University.

S.M. in Applied Mathematics, l96l, Harvard University.

Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics, l964, Harvard University. Thesis title: Radiative and photochemical processes in strato- and mesospheric dynamics.

WORK EXPERIENCE:

Summers 1956-59                                            Technician Radio Corporation of America

l964-l965.                                                             Research Associate in Meteorology, University of Washington.

l965-l966.                                                             NATO Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Institute for Theoretical Meteorology, University of Oslo.

l966-l967.                                                             Research Scientist, National Center for Atmospheric Research.

April-June l967.                                 Visiting Lecturer in Meteorology, UCLA.

l968-l972.                                                             Associate Professor and Professor of Meteorology, University of Chicago.

Summers l968, l972, l978.             Summer Lecturer, NCAR Colloquium.

October-December l969.               Visiting  Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Tel Aviv University.

l972-l982.                                                            Gordon McKay Professor of Dynamic Meteorology, Harvard University.

February-June l975.                                        Visiting Professor of Dynamic Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

January-June l979.                                           Lady Davis Visiting Professor, Department of Meteorology, The  Hebrew  University, Jerusalem, Israel.

September l980-June l983.           Director,  Center for Earth and Planetary Physics, Harvard University.

July l982-June l983.                                          Robert P. Burden Professor of Dynamical Meteorology, Harvard University.

July l983- .                                                           Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  (Emeritus status as of 30 June 2013)

June 1988-2009 .                                              Distinguished Visiting Scientist at Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

September 1996-                                             Visiting professor, Laboratory for Dynamic Meteorology, Paris

November 2013-                                              Distinguished Senior Fellow, Cato Institute

July 2013                                                              Retired and assumed Emeritus status

HONORS:

Phi Beta Kappa

Sigma Xi

NCAR Outstanding Publication Award, l967

AMS Meisinger Award, l968

AGU Macelwane Award, l969

Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, l970-l976

Vikram Amblal Sarabhai Professor at Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India, 1985

AMS Charney Award, 1985

Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship, Dec. 1986-Jan. 1987

Member, National Academy of Sciences

Fellow, American Academy of Arts & Sciences

Fellow, American Meteorological Society

Fellow, American Geophysical Union

Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Sackler Visiting Professor, Tel Aviv University, January 1992

Landsdowne Lecturer, University of Victoria, March 1993

Member, Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters

Bernhard Haurwitz Memorial Lecturer, American Meteorological Society, 1997

Leo Prize of the Wallin Foundation (first recipient), 2006

Distinguished Engineering Achievement Award of the Engineers’ Council, February 2009

Petr Beckmann Award of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness, 2012

Member, European Academy of Sciences and Arts.

MEMBERSHIP:

American Meteorological Society (resigned)

National Academy of Sciences

American Academy of Arts and Science

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Geophysical Union (resigned)

European Geophysical Society

World Institute of Sciences

Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters

European Academy of Sciences and Arts

CO2 Coalition

OTHER:

Corresponding Member, Committee on Human Rights, National Academy of Sciences

Lead author of the 2001 Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Member, Climate Change Science Program Product Development Advisory Committee of the Department of Energy (term ended in 2009)

Previous service includes serving on editorial board of Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans and PAGEOPH, membership on the Rocket Research Committee, the US GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Committee, the Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the executive committee of the Space Studies Board, and the executive committee of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Research Council, serving as a member of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Corporation and serving on the council of the American Meteorological Society, Atmospheric Dynamics Committee of the AMS, MIT representative to UCAR, Distinguished Visiting Scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and consultant to the Goddard Space Flight Center..

CURRENT RESEARCH INTERESTS:

The general circulation of the earth’s atmosphere.

Climate dynamics.

Hydrodynamic shear instability.

Dynamics of the middle atmosphere.

Dynamics of planetary atmospheres.

Parameterization of cumulus convection.

Tropical meteorology.

Climate sensitivity.

Role of cirrus in climate.

MIT ACTIVITIES

Former Faculty Advisor, MIT Radio Society

Former Member, Board of MIT Hillel Foundation

Ph. D. THESIS STUDENTS

Donna Blake, Siu-Shung Hong, John Boyd, Lloyd Shapiro, Edwin Schneider, Margaret Niehaus, Jeffrey Forbes, Duane Stevens, Ian Watterson, Arthur Hou, Brian Farrell, Petros Ioannou, Arthur Rosenthal, Ka-Kit Tung, David Jacqmin, Ronald Miller, Arlindo DaSilva, Christopher Snyder, De-Zheng Sun, Daniel Kirk-Davidoff, Constantine Giannitsis, Gerard Roe, Nili Harnik, Pablo Zurita-Gotor, Roberto Rondanelli

M.S. THESIS STUDENTS                                                                

Joseph Chang, Niu Yang, Wen-Wei Pan

POST-DOCTORAL FELLOWS

Stephen Fels, Edward Sarachik, Ching-Yen Tsay, Isaac Held, Pinhas Alpert, M. Uryu, Steven Ashe, T. Aso, Randall Dole, Edwin Schneider, David Neelin, John Barker, Y.-Y. Hayashi, Michael Fox-Rabinowitz, Yuri Chernyak, Hans Schneider, Sumant Nigam, Edmund Chang, Myles Allen, Zachary Guralnik, Yong-Sang Choi, Heeje Ho.

                                               
PUBLICATIONS (excluding numerous op-eds)

 1.           (1965) On the asymmetric diurnal tide. Pure & Appl. Geophys., 62, 142-147.

 2.           R.S. Lindzen and R.M. Goody (1965). Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics: Part I. Models for radiative and photochemical processes. J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 341-348.

 3.           (1965) The radiative-photochemical response of the mesosphere to fluctuations in radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 469-478.

 4.           (1966)  Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics: Part II.   Vertical propagation of long period disturbances at the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 334-343.

 5.           (1966) Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics. Part III. Stability of a zonal vortex at midlatitudes to axially symmetric disturbances. J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 344-349.

 6.           (1966) Radiative and photochemical processes in mesospheric dynamics. Part IV. Stability of a zonal vortex at midlatitudes to baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 350-359.

 7.           (1966) On the theory of the diurnal tide. Mon. Wea. Rev., 94, 295-301.

 8.           (1966) Crude  estimate for the zonal velocity associated with  the diurnal temperature oscillation in the thermosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 71, 865-870.

 9.           (1966) On the relation of wave behavior to source strength and distribution in a propagating medium. J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 630-632.

10.          (1966) Turbulent convection — Malkus theory. Proc. NCAR Thermal Convection Colloquium. NCAR Tech. Note 24.

11.          (1967) Thermally driven diurnal tide in the atmosphere. Q.J. Roy. Met. Soc., 93, 18-42.

12.          (1967) Diurnal velocity oscillation in the thermosphere — reconsidered. J. Geophys. Res., 72, 1591-1598.

13.          (1967) On the consistency of thermistor measurements of upper air temperatures. J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 317-318.

14.          (1967) Mesosphere. In The Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences and Astrogeology, R. Fairbridge, ed. Reinhold Pub. Co., New York, pp 556-559.

15.          R.S. Lindzen and D.J. McKenzie (1967). Tidal theory with Newtonian cooling. Pure & Appl. Geophys., 64, 90-96.

16.          (1967) Physical processes in the mesosphere. Proc. IAMAP Moscow Meeting on Dynamics of Large Scale Atmospheric Processes, A.S. Monin, ed.

17.          (1967) Lunar diurnal atmospheric tide. Nature, 213, 1260-1261.

18.          (1967) Planetary waves on beta planes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 95, 441-451.

19.          (1968) The application of classical atmospheric tidal theory. Proc. Roy. Soc., A, 303, 299-316.

20.          (1968) Lower atmospheric energy sources for the upper atmosphere. Met. Mono., 9, 37-46.

21.          (1968) Rossby waves with negative equivalent depths — comments on a note by G.A. Corby. Q.J. Roy. Met. Soc., 94, 402-407.

22.          R.S. Lindzen, E.S. Batten and J.W. Kim (1968). Oscillations in atmospheres with tops. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 133-140.

23.          R.S. Lindzen and J.R. Holton (1968). A note on Kelvin waves in the atmosphere.  Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 385-386.

24.          R.S. Lindzen and T. Matsuno (1968). On the nature of large scale wave disturbances in the equatorial lower stratosphere. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 46, 215-221.

25.          R.S. Lindzen and J.R. Holton (1968). A theory of quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 1095-1107.

26.          (1968) Vertically propagating waves in an atmosphere with Newtonian cooling inversely proportional to density. Can. J. Phys., 46, 1835-1840.

27.          (1968) Some speculations on the roles of critical level interactions between internal gravity waves and mean flows. In Acoustic Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere, T.M. Georges, ed. U.S. Government Printing Office.

28.          (1969) Data necessary for the detection and description of tides and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. J. Atmos. Ter. Phys., 31, 449-456.

29.          R.S. Lindzen and S. Chapman (1969). Atmospheric tides. Sp. Sci. Revs., 10, 3-188.

30.          R.S. Lindzen and H.L. Kuo (1969). A reliable method for the numerical integration of a large class of ordinary and partial differential equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 732-734.

31.          (1969) Vertical momentum transport by large scale disturbances of the equatorial lower stratosphere. J. Met. Soc. Japan., 48, 81-83.

32.          (1969) The latke, the hamantasch and the (m)oral crisis in the university. The Jewish Digest, 15, 55-58.

33.          S. Chapman and R.S. Lindzen (1970). Atmospheric Tides, D. Reidel Press, Dordrecht, Holland, 200 pp.

34.          (1970) Internal equatorial planetary scale waves in shear flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 394-407.

35.          (1970) The application and applicability of terrestrial atmospheric tidal theory to Venus and Mars. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 536-549.

36.          (1970) Mean heating of the thermosphere by tides. J. Geophys. Res., 75, 6868-6871.

37.          (l970) Internal gravity waves in atmospheres with realistic dissipation and temperature: Part I. Mathematical development and propagation of waves into the thermosphere. Geophys. Fl. Dyn., 1, 303-355.

38.          R.S. Lindzen and D. Blake (1971). Internal gravity waves in atmospheres with realistic dissipation and temperature: Part II. Thermal tides excited below the mesopause. Geophys. Fl. Dyn., 2, 31-61.

39.          (1971) Internal gravity waves in atmospheres with realistic dissipation and temperature: Part III. Daily variations in the thermosphere. Geophys. Fl. Dyn., 2, 89-121.

40.          (197l) Tides and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. In Mesospheric Models and Related Experiments, G. Fiocco, ed., D. Reidel Pub., Dordrecht, Holland.

41.          (1971) Atmospheric Tides. Lec. in App. Math., 14, 293-362.

42.          (1971) Some aspects of atmospheric waves in realistic atmosphere. In Atmospheric Model Criteria, R.E. Smith and S.T. Wu, eds., Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA Report SP-305, pp. 71-90.

43.          (1971) Equatorial planetary waves in shear: Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 609-622.

44.          (1972) Equatorial planetary waves in shear: Part II. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1452-1463.

45.          (1972) Atmospheric tides. In Structure and Dynamics  of the Upper Atmosphere, F. Verniani, ed., Elsevier, New York, pp. 21-88.

46.          R.S. Lindzen and D. Blake (1972). Lamb waves in the presence of realistic distributions of temperature and dissipation. J. Geophys. Res., 7, 2166-2176.

47.          (1972) The 26 month oscillation in the atmosphere. In Geopaedia Encyclopedic Dictionary of Geosciences, Pergamon Press, New York.

48.          (1972) Atmospheric tides. In Geopaedia Encyclopedic Dictionary of Geosciences, Pergamon Press, New York.

49.          J.R. Holton and R.S. Lindzen (1972). An updated theory for the quasibiennial cycle of the tropical stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1076-1080.

50.          (1973) Wave-mean flow interaction in the upper atmosphere. Bound. Lay. Met., 4, 327-343.

51.          (1973) Hydrodynamics of stratified fluids. Bound. Lay. Met., 4, 227-231.

52.          D. Blake and R.S. Lindzen (1973). Effect of photochemical models on calculated equilibria and cooling rates in the stratosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 101, 738-802.

53.          J.R. Holton and R.S. Lindzen (1973). Internal gravity wave-mean wind interaction.  Science, 182, 85-86.

54.          R.S. Lindzen and S.S. Hong (1973). Equivalent gravity modes — an interim evaluation. Geophys. Fl. Dyn., 4, 279-292.

55.          R.S. Lindzen and D. Will (1973). An analytic formula for heating due to ozone absorption. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 513-515.

56.          (1974) Wave-CISK and tropical meteorology. Proceedings Int’l. Trop. Met. Meeting, 1/31-2/7, Nairobi, Kenya.  Amer. Met. Soc. Pub.

57.          (1974) Wave-CISK in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 156-179.

58.          (1974) Wave-CISK and tropical spectra. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1447-1449.

59.          (1974) Stability of a Helmholtz velocity profile in a continuously stratified infinite Boussinesq fluid – applications to a clear air turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1507-1514.

60.          S. Fels and R.S. Lindzen (1974). Interaction of thermally excited gravity waves with mean flows. Geophys. Fl. Dyn., 6, 149-191.

61.          R.S. Lindzen and S.S. Hong (1974). Effects of mean winds and horizonal temperature gradients on solar and lunar semidiurnal tides in the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1421-1446.

62.          (1975) Reply to comments by A. Hollingsworth. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1643.

63.          R.S. Lindzen and C.Y. Tsay (1975). Wave structure of tropical atmosphere over the Marshall Islands during 1 April – 1 July 1958. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 2009-2021.

64.          (1976) Reply to comments by M. Geller. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 558.

65.          (1976) A modal decomposition of the semidiurnal tide in the lower atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 81, 2923-2925.

66.          R.S. Lindzen and S.S. Hong (1976). Solar semidiurnal tide in the thermosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 135-153.

67.          R.S. Lindzen and A.J. Rosenthal (1976). On the instability of Helmholtz velocity profiles in stably stratified fluids when a lower boundary is present. J. Geophys. Res., 81, 1561-1571.

68.          R.S. Lindzen and K.K. Tung (1976). Banded convective activity and ducted gravity waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 1602-1617.

69.          E. Schneider and R.S. Lindzen (1976). A discussion of the parameterization of momentum exchange by cumulus convection. J. Geophys. Res., 81, 3158-3160.

70.          E. Schneider and R.S. Lindzen (1976). On the influence of stable stratification on the thermally driven tropical boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 1301-1307.

71.          J. Forbes and R.S. Lindzen (1976). Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects. Part I: The global Sq current system. J. Atmos. Ter. Phys., 38, 897-910.

72.          J. Forbes and R.S. Lindzen (1976). Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects. Part II: The equatorial electrojet. J. Atmos. Ter. Phys., 38, 911-920.

73.          J. Forbes and R.S. Lindzen (1977). Atmospheric solar tides and their electrodynamic effects. Part III: The polarization electric field. J. Atmos. Ter. Phys., 38, 1369-1377.

74.          (1977) Some aspects of convection in  meteorology. In Problems of Stellar Convection, J.P. Zahn, ed., Springer Verlag, New York, 128-141.

75.          R.S. Lindzen and B. Farrell (1977). Some realistic modifications of simple climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1487-1501.

76.          R.S. Lindzen, J. Forbes and S.S. Hong (1977). Semidiurnal Hough modes extensions and their application. Naval Research Lab. Memorandum. Rep. 3442, 65 pp.

77.          E. Schneider and R.S. Lindzen (1977). Axially symmetric steady state models of the basic state of instability and climate studies. Part I: Linearized calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 253-279.

78.          D. Stevens, R.S. Lindzen and L. Shapiro (1977). A new model of tropical waves incorporating momentum mixing by cumulus convection. Dyn. Atmos. and Oc., 1, 365-425.

79.          (1978) Effect of daily variations of cumulonimbus activity on the atmospheric semidiurnal tide. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 526-533.

80.          (1979) Atmospheric Tides. Ann. Rev. Earth & Plan. Sci., 7, 199-225.

81.          R.S. Lindzen and K.K. Tung (1978). Wave overreflection and shear instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1626-1632.

82.          D. Stevens and R.S. Lindzen (1978). Tropical wave-CISK with a moisture budget and cumulus friction. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 940-961.

83.          D. Stevens and R.S. Lindzen (1978). Tropical wave-CISK with cumulus friction. Proc. AMS Symp. on Trop. Met., Key Biscayne.

84.          R.S. Lindzen and J.M. Forbes (l978). Boundary layers associated with thermal forced planetary waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1441-1449.

85.          K.K. Tung and R.S. Lindzen (1979). Theory of stationary long waves. Part I. A simple theory of blocking. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107, 714-734.

86.          K.K. Tung and R.S. Lindzen (1979). Theory of stationary long waves. Part II. Resonant Rossby waves in the presence of realistic vertical shear. Mon. Wea. Rev. 107, 735-750.

87.          (1979)  On a calculation of the symmetric circulation and its implications for the role of eddies. Proceedings of the NCAR General Circulation Colloquium, 1978.

88.          (1979)  The concept of wave overreflection and its application to baroclinic instability. Proceedings of the NCAR General Circulation Colloquium 1978.

89.          R.S. Lindzen, B. Farrell and K.K. Tung (1980). The concept of wave overreflection and its application to baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 44-63.

90.          R.S. Lindzen and B. Farrell (1980). Reply. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 900-902.

91.          R.S. Lindzen and B. Farrell (1980). A simple approximate result for the maximum growth rate of baroclinic instabilities. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1648-1654.

92.          R.S. Lindzen and B. Farrell (1980). The role of polar regions in global climate, and the parameterization of global heat transport. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 2064-2079.

93.          (1980) Theory of atmospheric tides. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 58, 273-278.

94.          (1980) Wave-CISK and cumulus parameterization in perspective. Proceedings of NAS Symposium on the Impact of GATE on Large-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere and Ocean. Woods Hole, MA.

95.          E.K. Schneider and R.S. Lindzen (1980). Comments on cumulus friction: Estimated influence on the tropical mean meridional circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 2803-2806.

96.          R.S. Lindzen and A.J. Rosenthal (1981). A WKB asymptotic analysis of baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 619-629.

97.          (1981) Turbulence and stress due to gravity wave and tidal breakdown. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9707-9714.

98.          (1981)  Some remarks on cumulus parameterization. Proceedings of the NASA Clouds in Climate Conference, NASA Report, available NASA/Goddard Institute of Space Studies.

99.          R.S. Lindzen, A.Y. Hou and B.F. Farrell (1982). The role of convective model choice in calculating the climate impact of doubling CO2. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1189-1205.

100.        R.S. Lindzen, B.F. Farrell and D. Jacqmin (1982). Vacillations due to wave interference. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 14-23.

101.        R.S. Lindzen and M.R. Schoeberl (1982). A note on the limits of Rossby wave amplitudes. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1171-1174.

102.        R.S. Lindzen, T. Aso and D. Jacqmin (1982). Linearized calculations of stationary waves in the atmosphere. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 60, 66-78.

103.        R.S. Lindzen and J. Forbes (1982). Turbulence originating from stable internal waves. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6549-6553.

104.        R.S. Lindzen, B. Farrell and A.J. Rosenthal (1982). Absolute barotropic instability and monsoon depressions. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1178-1184.

105.        A. Rosenthal and R.S. Lindzen (1983). Instabilities in a stratified flud having one critical level. Part I: Results. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 509-520.

106.        A. Rosenthal and R.S. Lindzen (1983). Instabilities in a stratified fluid having one critical level. Part II: Explanation of gravity wave instabilities as overreflected waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 521-529.

107.        A. Rosenthal and R.S. Lindzen (1983). Instabilities in a stratified fluid having one critical level.  Part III: Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as overreflected waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 530-542.

108.        A. Rosenthal and R.S. Lindzen (1983). Instabilities in a stratified shear flow in the absence of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Tech. Rept., Center for Met. and Phys. Oceanogr., MIT.

109.        R.S. Lindzen, A.J. Rosenthal and B. Farrell (1983). Charney’s problem for baroclinic instability applied to barotropic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1029-1034.

110.        R.S. Lindzen, D. Straus and B. Katz (1984). An observational study of large scale atmospheric Rossby waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1320-1335.

111.        (1984) Gravity waves in the mesosphere, in Dynamics of the Middle Atmosphere, J.R. Holton and T. Matsuno, eds., Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, Japan.

112.        R.S. Lindzen and H. Teitelbaum (1984). Venus zonal wind above the cloud layer.  ICARUS, 57, 356-361.

113.        (1984) Charney’s work on vertically propagating Rossby waves — with remarks on his early research at MIT, in The Atmosphere – A Challenge, A memorial to Jule Charney, R.S. Lindzen, E.N. Lorenz, and G.W. Platzman, editors, Historical Monograph Series of the Am. Meteor. Soc. appeared in 1990.

114.        M. Schoeberl and R.S. Lindzen (1984). A numerical simulation of barotropic instability including wave-mean flow interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1368-1379.

115.        R.S. Lindzen and J. Barker (1985). Instability and wave over-reflection in stably stratified shear flow. J. Fluid Mech., 151, 189-217.

116.        D. Jacqmin and R.S. Lindzen (1985). The causation and sensitivity of the northern winter planetary waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 724-745.

117.        (1985) Multiple gravity wave breaking levels. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 301-305.

118.        (1986) Stationary planetary waves, blocking, and interannual variability. Adv. Geophys., 29, 251-273.

119.        (1986). A simple model for 100 thousand years oscillations in glaciation. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 986-996.

120.        R.S. Lindzen and S. Rambaldi (1986). A study of overreflection in viscous Poiseuille flow. J. Fluid Mech., 165, 355-372.

121.        P. Ioannou and R.S. Lindzen (1986). Baroclinic instability in the presence of barotropic jets. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 2999-3014.

122.        R.S. Lindzen and S. Nigam (1987). On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low level winds and convergence in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 44,  2418-2436.

123.        D.M. Straus, R.S. Lindzen and A.M. da Silva (1987). The characteristic Rossby frequency. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1100-1105.

124.        (1987) The development of the theory of the QBO. (Personal Recollections). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 68, 329-337.

125.        R.S. Lindzen and B. Farrell (1987). Atmospheric Dynamics. Rev. of Geophys., 25, 323-328.

126.        A.M. da Silva and R.S. Lindzen  (1988). A mechanism for the excitation of ultralong Rossby waves, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 3625-3639.

127.        (1988) CO2 feedbacks and the 100K year cycle. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 38, 42-49.

128.        (1988) Instability of plane parallel shear flow (Towards a mechanistic picture of how it works). PAGEOPH, 16, 103-121.

129.        (1988) Some remarks on cumulus parameterization. PAGEOPH, 16, 123-135.

130.        (1988) Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 705-711.

131.        R.S. Lindzen and A.Y. Hou (1988). Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating centered off the equator. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2416-2427.

132.        R.S. Lindzen and K.-K.- Tung (1988). Comments on ‘On the shear instability without over-reflection’ by Masaaki Takahashi. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 66, 179-184.

133.        R. Miller and R.S. Lindzen (1988). Viscous destabilization of stratified shear flow for Ri>1/4. Geophys. Astrophys. Fl. Dyn., 42, 49-91.

134.        C. Snyder and R.S. Lindzen (1988). Upper level baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2446-2459.

135.        S. Nigam and R.S. Lindzen (1989). The Sensitivity of stationary waves to variations in the basic state zonal flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1746-1768.

136.        R.S. Lindzen and M. Fox-Rabinovitz (1989). Consistent horizontal and vertical resolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 2575-2583.

137.        P. Ioannou and R.S. Lindzen (1990). W.K.B.J. approximation of the stability of a frontal mean state. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2825-2831.

138.        (1990) Some coolness concerning global warming. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 71, 288-299.

139.        (1990) Some remarks on global warming. Env. Sci. Tech., 24, 424-427.

140.        (1990) A skeptic speaks out. EPA Jour., 16, 46-47.

141.        (1990) Greenhouse warming: science v. consensus. in Environmental Consequences of Energy Production, proceedings of the seventeenth annual Illinois Energy Conference. Publ. by Energy Resources Center, The University of Illinois at Chicago.

142.        (1990) Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 310pp.

143.        (edited with G.W. Platzman and E.N. Lorenz) (1990) The Atmosphere – A Challenge A memorial to Jule Charney, Historical Monograph Series of the Am. Meteor. Soc.

144.        (1990) Response: Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 71, 1465-1467.

145.        C. Snyder and R.S. Lindzen (1991). Quasi-geostrophic wave-CISK in an unbounded baroclinic shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 78-88.

146.        (with Volkmar Wirth) (1991) Zero potential vorticity gradient basic states in the neighborhood of the equator. in Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Climate Diagnostics Workshop. NTIS, US Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, VA pp 256-259.

147.        (1991) Some remarks on the dynamics of the Jovian atmospheres. Geophys. and Astrophys. Fl. Dyn., 58, 123-141.

148.        (1991) Prospects for tropical modeling. Proc. ECMWF Conf. on Tropical Meteorology.

149.        (1991) The Hadley circulation. Proc. ECMWF Conf. on Tropical Meteorology.

150.        (1991) Some uncertainties with respect to water vapor’s role in climate sensitivity. Proceedings of NASA Workshop on the Role of Water Vapor in Climate Processes, October 29 – November 1, 1990 in Easton, Maryland (D.O’C. Starr and H. Melfi, editors).

151.        Miller, R. and R.S. Lindzen (1992) Organization of rainfall by an unstable jet with application to African waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 1523-1540.

152.        Hou, A.Y. and R.S. Lindzen (1992) The influence of concentrated heating on the Hadley circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 1233-1241.

153.        (1992) Global warming: the origin and nature of the alleged scientific consensus. Regulation, Spring 1992 issue, 87-98.

154.        A.M. Da Silva and R.S. Lindzen (1993) On the establishment of stationary waves in the northern hemisphere winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 43-61.

155.        Fox-Rabinovitz, M. and R.S. Lindzen (1993) Numerical experiments on consistent horizontal and vertical resolution for atmospheric models and observing systems. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 264–271.

156.        Sun, D-Z. and R.S. Lindzen (1993) Water vapor feedback and the ice age snowline record. Ann. Geophys., 11, 204-215.

157.        Sun, D-Z. and R.S. Lindzen (1993) Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1643-1660.

158.        (1993) Baroclinic neutrality and the tropopause. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1148-1151.

159.        Ioannou, P. and R.S. Lindzen (1993) Gravitational tides on the outer planets; Part I: Formulation for deep planets. Astrophys. J., 406, 252-265.

160.        Ioannou, P. and R.S. Lindzen (1993) Gravitational tides on the outer planets; Part II: Application to tidal dissipation on Jupiter. Astrophys. J., 406, 266-278.

161.        (1993) On the scientific basis for global warming scenarios. Env. Pollution, 83, 125-134.

162.        (1995) Constraining possibilities versus signal detection. pp 182-186 in Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales, Ed. D.G. Martinson, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 630pp.

163.        (1993) Commentary (on the benefit of CO2 emission reductions vis a vis climate).  in Enhancing Environmental Quality Through Economic Growth, American Council for Capital Formation, Washington, DC, 130-137.

164.        (1993) Absence of scientific basis (for global warming scenarios). Exploration and Research (published by National Geographic), 9, 191-200.

165.        (1993) Paleoclimate sensitivity.  Nature, 363, 25-26.

166.        (1993) Climate dynamics and global change. Ann. Rev. Fl. Mech., 26, 353-378.

167.        (1993) Gravity wave breaking: legitimizing popular “fudges”. Current Contents, 24, 8.

168.        Sun, D.-Z. and R.S. Lindzen (1994) A PV view of the zonal mean distribution of temperature and wind in the extra-tropical troposphere.  J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 757-772.

169.        Ioannou, P. and R.S. Lindzen (1994) Gravitiational tides on Jupiter: Part III: Atmospheric response and mean flow acceleration. Astrophys. J., 424, 1005-1013.

170.        (1994) The Eady Problem with zero PV gradient but beta unequal to zero.  J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 3221-3226.

171.        Lindzen, R.S., and  W. Pan  (1994) A note on orbital control of equator-pole heat fluxes. Clim. Dyn., 10, 49-57.

172.        (1994) The effect of concentrated PV gradients on stationary waves.  J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 3455-3466.

173.        Kirk-Davidoff, D. and R.S. Lindzen (1994) Meridional heat fluxes inferred from past climates and implications for the tropical heat budget. in preparation.

174.        Lindzen, R.S., B. Kirtman, D. Kirk-Davidoff and E. Schneider (1994) Seasonal surrogate for climate. J. Climate, 8, 1681-1684.

175.        Lindzen, R.S., D.-Z. Sun, E. K.-M. Chang, and P. Ioannou (1994) Properties of a troposphere with zero EPV gradients on isentropes.Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Climate Diagnostics Workshop. NTIS, US Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, VA.

176.        (1994) What we know and what we don’t know about global warming. pp 335-358 in International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies – 18th Session – 1993, K. Goebel, editor, World Scientific, Singapore, 444pp.

177.        (1994) Classic problems in dynamics revisited. pp 90-98 in The Life Cycles of Extratropical Cyclones, Volume 1 (Grønås, S. and M. Shapiro, Editors), Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway 286 p.

178.        (1996) The importance and nature of the water vapor budget in nature and models. In Climate Sensitivity to Radiative Perturbations: Physical Mechanisms and their Validation, H. Le Treut (editor), pp. 51-66, NATO ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change, Vol. 34, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 331p.

179.        (1995) How cold would we get under CO2-less sky? Phys. Today, 48, 78-80.

180.        (1996) Science and politics: global warming and eugenics. in Risks, Costs, and Lives Saved, R. Hahn, editor, Oxford University Press, New York, 267pp (Chapter 5, 85-103)

181.        (1997) Can increasing atmospheric CO2 affect global climate? Proc. Natl..Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 8335-8342.

182.        G.H. Roe and R.S. Lindzen (1996) Baroclinic adjustment in a two-level model with barotropic shear.  J.  Atmos. Sci., 53, 2749-2754.

183.        N. Harnik and R.S. Lindzen (1998) Baroclinic instability in unbounded atmospheres with realistic distributions of PV gradient. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 344-360.

184.        R.S. Lindzen and C. Giannitsis (1998) On the climatic implications of volcanic cooling.  J. Geophys. Res., 103, 5929-5941.

185.        E. Schneider, R.S. Lindzen, and B. Kirtman (1997) A tropical influence on global climate. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, pp. 1349-1358.

186.        D. Braswell and R.S. Lindzen (1998) Anomalous solar absorption and the diurnal atmospheric tide. Geophys. Res. Ltrs., 25, 1293-1296.

187.        R.S. Lindzen and G.H. Roe (1997) Correction:  The effect of concentrated PV gradients on stationary waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1815-1818.

188.        Giannitsis, C. and R.S. Lindzen (2001) Non-linear saturation of topographically forced Rossby waves in a barotropic model.  J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2927-2941.

189.        Schneider, E.K., B.P. Kirtman and R.S. Lindzen (1999) Upper tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity. J. Atmos. Sci.,56, 1649-1658.

190.        Kirk-Davidoff, D.B. and R.S. Lindzen (2000) An energy balance model based on potential vorticity homogenization. J. Climate, 13, 431-448..

191.        (1998) Den Problematiska växthuseffekten.  Chapter 8 in Klimatpolitik efter Kyotomötet (T.R. Gerholm, editor), SNS Förlag, Stockholm, 175pp.

192.        (1999) The Greenhouse Effect and its problems.  Chapter 8 in Climate Policy After Kyoto (T.R. Gerholm, editor), Multi-Science Publishing Co., Brentwood, UK, 170pp.

193.        A. Solomon and R.S. Lindzen (2000) The impact of resolution on a numerical simulation of barotropic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 3799-3816.

194.        D. Straus and R.S. Lindzen (2000) Planetary scale baroclinic instability and the MJO.  J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 3609-3626.

195.        R.S. Lindzen, M.-D. Chou, and A.Y. Hou (2001) Does the Earth have an adaptive infrared iris?  Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 82, 417-432.

196.     G. Roe and R.S. Lindzen (2001) A one-dimensional model for the interaction between ice sheets and atmospheric stationary waves. Climate Dyn., 17, 479-487.

197.     G. Roe and R.S. Lindzen (2001) The mutual interaction between continental-scale ice sheets and atmospheric stationary waves.  J. Climate, 14, 1450-1465.

198.     R.S. Lindzen and K. Emanuel (2002) The greenhouse effect. in Encyclopedia of Global Change, Environmental Change and Human Society, Volume 1, Andrew S. Goudie, editor in chief, pp 562-566, Oxford University Press, New York,710 pp.

199.     Sun, D.-Z., C. Covey, and R.S. Lindzen (2001) Vertical correlations of water vapor in GCMs.. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 259-262.

200.     Zurita, P. and R.S. Lindzen (2001)  The equilibration of short Charney waves:  Implications for potential vorticity homogenization in the extratropical troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 3443-3462.

201.     Harnik, N. and R.S. Lindzen (2001) The effect of reflecting surfaces on the vertical structure and variability of stratospheric planetary waves.  J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2872-2894.

202.        Lindzen, R.S. and C. Giannitsis (2002) Reconciling observations of global temperature change. Geophys. Res. Ltrs. 29, (26 June) 10.1029/2001GL014074

203.        Lindzen, R.S. (2002a) Do Deep Ocean Temperature Records Verify Models? Geophys. Res. Ltrs., 29, 10.1029/2001GL014360.

204.        Lindzen, R.S. (2002b) Richard J. Reed and Atmospheric Tides in A Half Century of Progress in Meteorology: A Tribute to Richard J. Reed, R. Johnson, editor, American Meteorological Society Monograph

205.        Chou, M.-D., R.S. Lindzen, and A.Y. Hou (2002a) Impact of Albedo Contrast between Cirrus and Boundary-Layer Clouds on Climate Sensitivity.  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2, 99-101.

206.        Lindzen, R.S., M.-D. Chou, and A.Y. Hou (2002) Comments on  “No evidence for iris.”  Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 83, 1345–1348

207.        Chou, M.-D., R.S. Lindzen, and A.Y. Hou (2002b) Comments on “The Iris hypothesis: A negative or positive cloud feedback?” J. Climate, 15, 2713-2715.

208.        Bell, T. L., M.-D. Chou, R.S. Lindzen, and A.Y. Hou (2002)  Response to Comment on “Does the Earth Have an Adaptive Infrared Iris?” Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 83, 598-600.

210.        Chou, M.-D. and R.S. Lindzen (2002) Comments on “Tropical convection and the energy balance of the top of the atmosphere.”  J. Climate, 15, 2566-2570.

211.        Zurita-Gotor, P., and R.S. Lindzen (2004) Baroclinic equilibration and the maintenance of the momentum balance. Part I: barotropic analog.  J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1469-1482.

212.        Zurita-Gotor, P., and R.S. Lindzen (2004) Baroclinic equilibration and the maintenance of the momentum balance. Part II: 3-D results.  J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1483-1499.

213.        Giannitsis, C. and R.S. Lindzen (2009) Non-linear saturation of vertically propagating Rossby waves.  J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 915-934

214.        Lindzen, R.S. (2003) The Interaction of Waves and Convection in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 3009-3020.

215.        Chou, M.-D. and R.S. Lindzen (2005) Comments on “Examination of the Decadal Tropical Mean ERBS Nonscanner Radiation Data for the Iris Hypothesis”.  J. Clim. 18, 2123-2127.

216.        Kennel, C.F., R.S. Lindzen, and W. Munk (2004) William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000) – A biographical memoir.  Biographical Memoirs of the N.A.S., 85, 1-20.

217.        Lindzen, R.S. (2005) Understanding common climate claims. in Proceedings of the 34th International Seminar on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies, R. Raigaini, editor, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 472pp. (pp. 189-210)

218.        Zurita-Gotor, P., and R.S. Lindzen (2006) A generalized momentum framework for looking at baroclinic circulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2036-2055.

219.        Zurita-Gotor, P., and R.S. Lindzen (2007) Theories of baroclinic adjustment and eddy equilibration.  In Recent Results in General Circulation Theory.  T. Schneider and A. Sobel, Editors.  Princeton University Press.

220         Rondanelli, R., V. Thayalan, R. S. Lindzen, and M. T. Zuber (2006) Atmospheric contribution to the dissipation of the gravitational tide of Phobos on Mars.  Geophys. Res. Ltrs.

221.        Lindzen, R.S. (2008) “An Exchange on Climate Science and Alarm” in Global Warming: Looking Beyond Kyoto (Ernesto Zedillo, editor), Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC.

222.        Lindzen, R.S. (2006) Climate of Fear, Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2006.

223.        Lindzen, R.S. (2006) There is no ‘consensus’ on global warming, Wall Street Journal, June 26, 2006.

224.        Lindzen, R.S. (2006) Debunking the Myth. Business Today, 43, 66-67.

225.        Robert M. Carter, C. R. de Freitas, Indur M. Goklany, David Holland & Richard S. Lindzen (2006) The Stern Review: A Dual Critique, Part I: The Science, World Economics, 7, 167-198.

226.        Lindzen, R.S., 2007: Taking greenhouse warming seriously.  Energy & Environment, 18, 937-950.

227.        Carter, R.M., C. R. de Freitas, I. M. Goklany, D. Holland and R. S. Lindzen (2007) Climate Science and the Stern Review, World Economics, 8, 161-182.

228.        Rondanelli, R.F. and R.S. Lindzen (2008) Observed variations in convective precipitation fraction and stratiform area with SST.   J. Geophys. Res.113, D16119, doi:10.1029/2008JD010064.

229.        Rondanelli, R.F. and R.S. Lindzen (2008) Comments on “Variations of tropical upper tropospheric clouds with sea surface temperature and implications for radiative effects” by Su et al. [2008], J. Geophys. Res, 115, D06202, doi:10.1029/2008JD011189.

230.        Lindzen, R.S. (2008, 12) Climate science: is it designed to answer questions.   arXiv:0809.3762, available as pdf file on www.arxiv.org, Physics and Society.  Also in Euresis Journal, 2012, 2, 161-193

231.        Choi, Y-S., C. Ho, J. Kim, and R. S. Lindzen (2010), Satellite retrievals of quasi-spherical particles at cold temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L05703, doi:10.1029/2009GL041818

232.       Rondanelli, R. and R.S. Lindzen, 2010:Can thin cirrus clouds in the tropics provide a solution to the faint young Sun paradox?, J.Geophys. Res,. 115, D02108, 12 pp

233.       Lindzen, R.S. and Y.-S. Choi, 2009: On the determination of climate feedbacks from ERBE data, Geophys. Res. Ltrs., 36, L16705, doi:10.1029/2009GL039628.

234.        Lindzen, R.S. and Y.-S. Choi, 2011: On the observational determination of climate sensitivity and its implications. Asian Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Science, 47, 377-390.

235.        Y.-S. Choi, R. S. Lindzen, C.-H. Ho, and J. Kim, 2010: Space observations of cold-cloud phase change. Proc .Nat .Acad. Sci., 107, 11211-11216.

236.        Y.-S. Choi, C.H. Ho, S.-W. Kim and R.S. Lindzen, 2010: Observational diagnosis of cloud phase in the winter antarctic atmosphere for parameterizations in climate models.  Adv. Atm. Sci., 27, 1233-1245.

237.        Covey, C., A. Dai, D. Marsh, and R.S. Lindzen, 2010: The Surface-Pressure Signature of Atmospheric Tides in Modern Climate Models, J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 495-514, DOI: 10.1175/2010JAS3560.1.

238.        Lindzen, R.S. (2011) A case against precipitous climate action.  Energy and Environment, 6, 747-751.

239.        Rondanelli, R. and R.S. Lindzen, 2012: Comment on “Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox” by Goldblatt and Zahnle (2011), Climate of the Past Discussions, 8, 701-703, doi:10.5194/cp-8-701-2012

240.        Lindzen, R.S. (2012) Climate physics, feedbacks, and reductionism (and when does reductionism go too far?), Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 127: 52 DOI 10.1140/epjp/i2012-12052-8

241.        Y.-S. Choi, Cho, H., Ho, C.-H., Lindzen, R.S., Park, S.K. & Yu, X. (2014) Influence of non-feedback variations of radiation on the determination of climate feedback.  Theor Appl Climatol DOI 10.1007/s00704-013-0998-6

242.       R.S. Lindzen (2013) Science in the Public Square: Global Climate Alarmism and Historical Precedents, Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, 18, Fall issue.

243.        Covey, C., A. Dai,, R.S. Lindzen and D. Marsh (2014) Atmospheric Tides in the Latest Generation of Climate Models, J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 1905-1913 DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0358.1

244.        Zhang, B., R.S. Lindzen, V. Tallapragada, F. Weng, Q. Liu, J.A. Sippel, Z. Ma, and M.A. Bender (2016) Increasing vertical resolution in US models to improve track forecasts of Hurricane Joaquin with HWRF as an example. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 113, 11765-11769 doi/10.1073/pnas.1613800113.

245.        Lindzen, R.S. (2017) Straight Talk about Climate Change. Academic Questions, 30(4), 419-432. doi/10.1007/s12129-017-9669-x

246.     Lindzen, R.S. (2020) An oversimplified picture of the climate behavior based on a single process can lead to distorted conclusions, Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 135:462 https://doi.org/10.1140/epjp/s13360-020-00471-z

Additional Publications

Lindzen, R.S. (2018) Global Warming for the Two Cultures, https://www.thegwpf.org/content/uploads/2018/10/Lindzen-AnnualGWPF-lecture.pdf

Lindzen, R.S. (2020) On Climate Sensitivity, http://co2coalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Climate-Sensitivity-06.07.20.pdf

Lindzen, R.S. and J.R. Christy (2020) The Global Mean Temperature Anomaly, http://co2coalition.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Global-Mean-Temperature-Anomaly-Record_12.08.20.pdf

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Government/teachers unions?

All unions of government employees are redundant and wasteful.  Government at all levels already has a negotiation mechanism, the ballot box.  After 2020, most sentient humans agree that the ballot box is not working.  The fix for a broken ballot box is definitely NOT handing off responsibility to an unelected and unaccountable union. The reason voting boxes are not working in addition to the obvious and provable fraud tactic is accountability for bread and butter issues such as who is teaching our kids and what are they being taught have been delegated to unions. Same for prisons. Same for police, etc. Unions build self sustaining bureaucracies. Government unions are an entire layer of deep state which is redundant to our existing, already excessive, very expensive and perpetually growing legislative bodies at all levels of government.  Government unions remove your control over your life. You are already paying for government employees to perform union functions. Do not let your government delegate their responsibility to an unaccountable union. That would be stupid.

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The net effect of globalist policies

This simple graphic represents the net effect of the policies of the new world order globalists, including Covid-19 policies, green/sustainability/global warming energy policies, and open borders multiculturalism and illegal immigration policies.  The U.S. and other countries have gone into decline following booming economies in 2019.  

Saul Alinsky, Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, the UN, the Club of Rome, Bill Gates, George Soros, The Counsel on Foreign Relations, The U.S. Congress, The Democrat Party, The European Union, Black Lives Matter, Antifa, The Muslim Brotherhood, the Chinese Communist Party are accomplishing their goal.   

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