The coup has failed, time for Nuremberg.

Hillary’s campaign and the Obama FBI paid a foreign intelligence operative (Steele) to gather dirt from Russians on her political opponent, Trump. Hillary did not simply listen to it or accept it, she solicited it and paid for it …and so did Obama’s FBI. Then, Obama’s intel agencies leaked parts of that false and unverified information to the press, who ran with the story without journalistic diligence, before the election to attempt to influence the outcome of the election.

The Obama FBI and DOJ used that solicited, faked, foreign intelligence information illegally to obtain a FISA warrant to spy on the Trump campaign, then those same people set up the Mueller Special Prosecutor’s Office which used that same information, as well as illegally obtained information from spying on the Trump campaign, to try to build a case to impeach President Trump. All of that is strong evidence of collusion with a foreign government to influence a U.S. election and overthrow a duly elected president.

And now, many of those same people do not want to disclose the details of their crime in order to prevent the American people and criminals from learning how they do it, and that they have been doing it, not only against Trump, that is, we have all been spied upon continuously and personally by name for years.

“…I think some people are missing something here. The President [Obama] has put in place an organization that contains a kind of database than no one has ever seen before in life. That’s going to be very, very powerful and whoever …and that database will have information about everything on every individual in ways that it’s never been done before.” ~ Maxine Waters, U.S. Representative, Democrat, California, in a 2013 interview with journalist Roland Martin.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=26&v=eIA1lQBqH1s

Meanwhile, U.S. Inspector General Horowitz testified that many crimes are occurring within the U.S. D.O.J. and the agency is unable to police and prosecute itself.

Meanwhile U.S. Democrat Senators do nothing to stop these crimes, such as U.S. Senator Diane Feinstein (D-CA), who was spied on for years by her Chinese chauffeur as well as spied on by the U.S. NSA, or else they participate in the crimes like U.S. Senator Mark Warner (D-VA), vice chair of U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee, who was found texting with the same foreign intelligence operators mentioned above.

Time for the U.S. version of the famous Nuremberg Trials that prosecuted the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after WWII.

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/crime-courts/fbi-releases-documents-showing-payments-trump-dossier-author-steele-n897506

Coup failed

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Infrared absorption is not heat

IR emission occurs in 360 degrees after a collision event with a water vapor molecule or CO2 molecule.  Half of that emission will be downward, but only 1/360th will be vertically downward.  Half of the radiation emitted is directed away from the earth’s surface, half towards earth’s surface.  If that water molecule or CO2 molecule is close to the surface, the IR emission from the molecule could reach the water or soil.  There is no wave guide or other physical phenomena to direct the radiation one way or another.

Flux is the total power incident upon a unit surface area, usually specified in terms such as Watts per square meter per Steradian.  Intensity is the flux arriving at a surface area from a source spot of light along a specified angle and direction.  Intensity (or radiance) does not decrease with distance.  Total flux is the integration of all intensities, those intensities having been weighted for the angle of incidence of the radiation (cosine of the angle).  Flux density decreases by the square of the distance from the source.

The amount of downward-directed IR is only half of the IR intensity which was absorbed by that molecule.  The IR radiation which was absorbed by the gas molecule probably came from the surface.  There can be no absorption at the surface of the down-dwelling instantaneous pulse of IR radiation emitted from a CO2 or water vapor molecule because the molecules at the surface are radiating at higher intensity and higher flux density than the incoming IR light from the gas molecules.  Molecules on the surface are incapable of absorbing IR energy at the lower intensity and lower flux density emitted by the gas molecules.  The instantaneous down-dwelling pulse of IR radiation from the gas molecule will either transmit transparently through the surface molecules (and be then be transmitted, reflected/scattered or absorbed by molecules further below the surface), or be reflected/scattered by the surface molecules (albedo) back into the air, most likely the latter because of the efficiency of conduction of heat in water and solids.

These optical interactions with matter are happening nearly instantly. And it is necessary to distinguish between solids, liquids and gases at the surface, as well as the intensity and flux of the IR radiation, and other complex variables.  Radiation is absorbed, reflected/scattered or transmitted and the sum of these 3 must be 100%. Absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity depend on the direction or angle of incidence of the incoming radiation.  If the molecule or surface absorbs IR radiation, then its reflectivity and transmissivity must be low, and vice-versa.

A water vapor molecule close to the earth’s surface probably absorbed IR radiation which was radiated a moment before from a much larger surface area on earth.  The IR radiation flux from the large nearly planar surface was dense, emitting toward a tiny spot, the gas molecule.  Shortly after that absorption event, the water vapor molecule had a collision, and instantly after that collision half of the IR radiation was re-radiated by the water vapor molecule in 360 degrees.  Half of the flux and intensity which was initially absorbed was now radiated away from the surface of the earth and the other half re-radiated back toward the surface of the earth.  The angle of incidence the IR re-radiation returning to earth’s surface has been widened significantly, so therefore the intensity of the radiation received at any angle and direction as well as the flux density has been significantly diminished.  The frequency/wavelength absorbed by the gas molecule is almost identical to the frequency/wavelength emitted by the gas molecule.  In other words, the less intense down-dwelling radiation from the gas molecule cannot be absorbed by the surface from which more intense radiation emitted only a moment before and is probably still emitting.  The down-dwelling radiation is most probably reflected/scattered from the surface since conduction and convection efficiently distribute heat/vibrations within solids and liquids, and since the down-dwelling flux and intensity are at least 50% less than the up-dwelling radiation.  The down-dwelling radiation is a pulse; the up-dwelling radiation is a continuing flux.  The down-dwelling IR radiation is reflected/scattered by the surface back into the air.  At each successive absorption-collision-emission sequence, flux and intensity are diminished.

The highly touted ability of so-called “greenhouse gases” to “trap” radiation only lasts for the instant of time between collisions, and after each successive absorption-collision-emission sequence a diminishing flux and intensity of IR energy is incident upon earth’s surface.  So-called “greenhouse gases” delayed cooling of the earth’s surface, essentially functioning as a temporary insulator.

On the other hand, if the earth surface is cold, then the water vapor or CO2 molecule probably absorbed IR radiation from another nearby water vapor or CO2 molecule.  (Incoming IR radiation from the sun which might be reflected by earth’s surface (albedo) is not at the required frequencies/wavelengths to be absorbed by water vapor or CO2.)  Since those CO2 and water vapor molecules are pulses of IR light radiating in 360 degrees, and since these molecules are relatively rare gas molecules, there is a relatively long distance between these absorbing molecules, therefore then these CO2 and water vapor molecules are only absorbing very small flux of IR energy before they collide with a N2 or an O2 molecule and re-emit that IR energy in lower intensity and flux in 360 degrees.

So, also in the case of a cold earth surface, the highly touted ability of so-called “greenhouse gases” to “trap” radiation only lasts for the instant of time between collisions, and at each successive absorption-collision-emission a diminishing flux and intensity is incident upon earth’s surface or any gas molecules with available bands.  If the earth’s cold surface is opaque, it will absorb the diminished IR flux resulting in slight warming of the colder surface.  If the cold surface is reflective, e.g. covered with fresh snow or ice, then the IR flux is reflected/scattered back into the air but at reduced intensity and flux density.  Thus, the net result is that so-called “greenhouse gases” have delayed cooling of the earth’s surface, essentially functioning as a temporary insulator.

Down-dwelling radiation from a water vapor or CO2 molecule could be absorbed by certain these same gas molecules, but the probability distribution is that those nearby gas molecules have already absorbed their quanta of IR radiation from the same IR source, the near continuous and more intense, higher flux IR radiation from the earth’s surface.  If the energy bands of nearby CO2 and water vapor molecules are already occupied, then IR radiation will be transmitted transparently through those nearby molecules.

Summarizing so far, most of the IR absorbed by so-called “greenhouse gases” is radiated away from the surface.  The down-dwelling half of the radiative flux from these gases may make multiple trips to the surface and back into the air with diminishing flux and intensity at each trip.  The net sum of the fluxes results in a delay of cooing of the surface.

IR radiation itself is not heat (nor temperature increase).  Heat is generated upon collisions of mass, more collisions = higher temperature = higher gas pressure, or higher conduction and convection in a liquid or solid where the molecules are in physical or ionic contact. Heat is also created after IR radiation is absorbed by molecules causing increased frequency of the internal kinetic vibrations of the atoms in molecules and while in that elevated energy state those excited molecules collide with or are in physical contact with a surface; in such a collision, the potential energy of one molecule can be translated into kinetic motion of the molecules on the solid surface or in the liquid matrix.  In the same way but in reverse, a molecule colliding with a high temperature (rapidly vibrating) surface has its vector motion accelerated (higher temperature) after the collision.

Absorption and emission events by themselves are not thermal events.  Photons have no mass and no friction.  Sunlight is not hot and radiation up-dwelling from earth’s surface is not heat.  The relative vector motion and collision of molecules is what we measure and perceive as heat.  A visible light source shining onto your hand does not warm your hand even though visible light is higher energy than IR light.  IR light shining onto your hand feels warm because the IR frequencies/wavelengths match frequencies/wavelengths in molecules in your skin and excites those molecules to higher frequency vibrations, which we perceive and measure as increased temperature.

Photons/waves at appropriate frequencies/wavelengths excite electrons.  The probability and frequency of a negative electric charge being found in a given location around the molecule is increased.  Upon absorption, the electrons are bumped from their ground state up to an excited state.  The velocity and frequency of the incident photon/wave is converted by the electron shell into higher frequencies of the various characteristic internal kinetic motions of the atoms (which have mass) relative to other atoms in the molecule.  The gas molecule which was stretching and bending in various characteristic patterns in its ground state now does those characteristic motions at higher frequency; this is absorption.  Then, this elevated vibrational state can be transmitted by collision with another molecule which has similar dipole moments if that molecule is not already excited, after which the first molecule returns to its ground state vibrations.  In other words, the elevated vibrational state that results from absorbance of IR radiation does not necessarily result in higher temperature.  Higher frequency internal molecular vibration from absorption of radiation is higher potential energy.  Heating occurs when the internal motions of the atoms in molecules are translated to kinetic vector motion of the molecules, when atomic motions become molecular motions.  This translation occurs in collisions or physical contact between molecules.

An excited molecule can also relax to its ground state vibrations by emitting the IR radiation which it absorbed.  Near the surface in the troposphere usually there will be a collision before this relaxation occurs.  In the rarified, low pressure, cold, upper atmosphere, about half of this IR radiation can be emitted into outer space from a given molecule in a given emission event.

In certain collisions, such as a water vapor molecule colliding with a nitrogen molecule (which is the most likely occurrence for a water vapor molecule by about an order of magnitude), the excited water vapor molecule will emit IR in 360 degrees – a momentary point of IR light – after the collision, and the vector motion of the water vapor molecule will be accelerated (heated) after the collision with the more massive N2.  Alternatively, the water vapor molecule would also be accelerated (heated) following a collision with an O2 or CO2 molecule since these are also more massive molecules than a water vapor molecule.  Since O2 and N2 are much higher concentration in air than water vapor, and since O2 and N2 have no energy bands with which to absorb either vibrations or emitted radiation from water vapor molecules, and since O2 and N2 are more massive than water vapor, then the most likely event in this example of probability distribution is post-collision 360-degree IR emission by the water vapor molecule into the surrounding 99% empty space, followed by the water vapor molecule relaxing to its ground state internal vibrations, and a new vector direction and acceleration (temperature) are imparted to the water vapor molecule as determined by the velocity and mass of the two molecules and collision angle of that specific collision event.  In other words, the water vapor molecule, which is considered by some to responsible for 95% of so-called “greenhouse gas” warming, is itself warmed (accelerated) by frequent collisions with the far higher concentrations of the more massive N2 and O2 molecules in air.

On the other hand, a collision between the more massive CO2 molecule with either O2, N2 or gaseous H2O will result in acceleration (heating) of the O2, N2, or gaseous H2O. Of course, collisions with CO2 are rare compared to the probability of collisions among the other gases colliding with each other.  Although collisions with CO2 are relatively rare because CO2 is a trace gas, increasing the concentration of CO2 increases the rate of collisions between CO2 with the other less massive molecules in air.    Collisions with CO2 will result in acceleration (heating) of the other molecule in the collision, but this heating is not due to absorption of IR radiation by CO2, unless the other molecule happens to be water vapor or CO2.  IR radiation is potential energy held in the excited or elevated internal vibrations of the CO2 molecule.  To transfer that potential energy non-radiatively the CO2 molecule would need to collide with another molecule with similar dipole configuration (such as another CO2 molecule or a water vapor molecule) which itself is not already excited; the probability of such a collision is very low.

Note that the absorbance of radiation by a gas is linearly proportional to the concentration of that gas.   But, on the other hand, temperature of a gas increases by the log of the concentration of the gas (i.e., the inverse of concentration: 1 divided by the concentration.)  In other words, absorption and re-emission of radiation by so-called “greenhouse gases” does occur, but the molecular species of the gas (and thus its mass), as well as its relative concentration versus the other gases in air, and the air pressure, determine the temperature of the air more than the absorption of IR radiation by “greenhouse gases” like water vapor and CO2.  And, the net concentration of “greenhouse gases” is dominantly determined by the temperature of the oceans.  Collisions determine air temperature far more than absorption of IR radiation.  “Trapping” of IR radiation lasts only fractions of a second between collisions.  Net summary:  absorption of IR radiation from earth’s surface by “greenhouse gases” results in delayed cooling of the earth’s surface by delaying emission of IR radiation back into outer space.  This delayed cooling results in earth being a much more comfortable temperature and place to live.  The effects of human-produced CO2 are too small to measure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

©Bud Bromley                        11 June 2019

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Effects of human-produced CO2 are too small to measure

Simple math can be used to calculate the rate of change of one variable versus another variable.  The rate of change of one variable versus another is known as its slope or velocity, also known as its first derivative.  The change in atmospheric CO2 concentration over a period of time is the slope of CO2 concentration, or the first derivative of CO2 concentration with respect to time.  The change of slope with respect to time is the second derivative, also known as acceleration.  We can use this simple math to calculate the change of atmospheric CO2 concentration versus time, that is, the slope or 1st derivative of CO2 concentration.  And, we can also calculate the change in slope of CO2 concentration versus time, that is, the second derivative of CO2 concentration with respect to time, or the acceleration of CO2 concentration.  This simple math is the basis of this letter.

Decades ago, a professor named Keeling set up a laboratory on the Big Island of Hawaii at 11,000 feet altitude on the side of Mauna Loa.  The instruments in this laboratory have been measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration since then.  These measurements show atmospheric CO2 concentration has been steadily increasing since the instruments on Mauna Loa were installed.  In other words, the laboratory provides us with the slope of atmospheric CO2 concentration, which is also known as the first derivative of atmospheric CO2 concentration with respect to time.  Since CO2 is generally accepted to be a well-mixed gas in air, the Mauna Loa data is generally accepted to represent the global average atmospheric CO2 concentration.

Here is the graph from the Keeling laboratory on Mauna Loa.

Keeling Curve_full_record

In the data files underlying the above graphic, we have the raw date to calculate the change of atmospheric CO2 concentration over time (the slope or first derivative) as well as the rate of change of slope over time (the second derivative with respect to time.)

In the graphic and raw data, we can see the increase and decrease in CO2 levels due to seasonal changes. This seasonal change appears as jagged shark’s teeth on the consistently upward sloping CO2 concentration.  In the spring and summer, when plants are growing and oceans are warming, CO2 concentration increases slightly.  In winter, when plants lose their leaves and algae die, and oceans cool, CO2 concentration decreases slightly.  The instruments in the lab on Mauna Loa and the Keeling graph are sensitive enough to record these relatively minor seasonal CO2 concentration changes within the overall data and graph of changing CO2 concentration over time. In other words, we can see the second derivative of CO2 concentration, the change in slope with respect to time, in the graphic.

We know from other sources CO2 concentration was increasing long before data collection began at the Mauna Loa Keeling lab.  But, we do not need that information for the purpose of this short paper.

The Keeling graph reports 414 CO2 molecules per 1,000,000 molecules of air in the earth’s atmosphere, or 414 ppm, or 0.0414%.  PPM is only one of several different possible measures of concentration. The other air molecules in air are nitrogen, oxygen, argon, water vapor and various trace molecules.  CO2 is one of those trace molecules.  Nitrogen and oxygen together make up 97% to 98% of the total molecules in air.  Argon (Ar) is slightly less than 1% concentration.  Water vapor concentration in air is highly variable, from less than 1% to 4%.  CO2, methane, ozone and the other gas molecules in air are known as trace molecules and all of these trace molecules taken together make up less than 1% of the molecules in a volume of air.  A cubic meter volume of air at sea level is 99.9% empty space.  Air is not dense compared to any liquid such as water where molecules are so closely packed together that they are in physical contact and can share electrons and conduct heat among them.

The 414 ppm or 0.0414% concentration of CO2 in air represents the net sum of all CO2 absorption and desorption events on earth.  It is the sum of trillions of events which are occurring every second.

For example, the oceans in the far north and in the far south are absorbing CO2 because cold water absorbs and holds more CO2 than warm water, like a cold soda pop keeping its CO2 bubbles.  Another example is the absorption of enormous amounts of CO2 from the air by all green plants.  All green plants use CO2 from the air along with water and sunlight in a process called photosynthesis which converts CO2 into carbohydrate molecules.  Sugars are a group of common carbohydrate molecules.  Carbohydrate molecules are the building blocks for all plant cells.  Animals, insects, fish, humans, all life on earth is based on carbohydrate molecules in cells which are made by green plants from carbon, water and sunlight.  Animals, insects, fish etc. eat plants, then those plants are in turn eaten by other animals, insects, fish, humans and so on in a continuous process called the food chain.

Another example of an enormous and ongoing change in CO2 that contributes to the net atmospheric CO2 concentration is methane (CH4) emissions.  Methane is continuously emitted by warm water, just as is CO2, and is continuously absorbed by cold water, just as is CO2.  About 50 to 60 times more CO2 molecules are dissolved in the water of earth’s oceans compared to earth’s air.  This ratio, expressed as a partition co-efficient, is determined by Henry’s Law.  It is a constant of nature.  It’s not a theory nor a hypothesis, it is a scientific law that is more proven and far better understood than gravity or how a radio amplifier works.  Henry’s Law determines the ratio partition of a gas between liquid water and the gas above the liquid water.  Henry’s Law is dependent on the pressure of the gas, the temperature of the gas and water, and to minor extent the minerals like salt in the water.  Since air pressure at sea level is nearly constant, the primary determinant of the amount of CO2 in air  is the temperature of  ocean water.  Oceans are like your soda pop.  If the soda pop is cold, then the CO2 bubbles stay in the pop.  If the soda pop warms, the pop loses its CO2 bubbles.  As mentioned, determined by Henry’s Law, there is 50 to 60 times more CO2 in the oceans.  Warm ocean water emits huge amounts of CO2 and methane which contribute to the net atmospheric CO2 concentration reported in the Keeling Mauna Loa data. The largest source (by orders of magnitude) of CO2 and methane in the air is the emission of these molecules by warm water in oceans and soils.  CO2 and methane are absorbed back into cold water in amounts also as determined by Henry’s Law, which also is a component of the net atmospheric CO2 concentration reported in the Keeling Mauna Loa data.

Chemists know that methane (CH4) released into the open air at the average temperature and air pressure at sea level converts spontaneously (oxidizes) to CO2 and H2O when in the presence of a gaseous molecule such chlorine.  On average, a CH4 molecule in air will be oxidized to yield a CO2 molecule and a H2O molecule within 8 years, a natural process occurring continuously.  Chlorine is found naturally near the surface of warm salty ocean water.  Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth’s surface. Like CO2, most methane is emitted from warm ocean water.  Secondly, methane is emitted from the natural breakdown of plant material in soil.  In other words, methane emitted by warm ocean water and soil is also a huge source of CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere and is a component of the net atmospheric CO2 concentration reported in the Keeling Mauna Loa data.

Thus, the slope (or first derivative) of net atmospheric CO2 concentration which we see in the above Keeling curve is determined mostly by Henry’s Law which is determined mostly by the temperature of the oceans.  The warming oceans since the end of the last ice age are the dominant source of net atmospheric CO2 concentration.

Summarizing so far, we have a huge amount of absorption of CO2 by nature and a huge amount of emission of CO2 by nature.  The net sum of all these absorption events and emission events  appears as the upward sloping line of the net atmospheric CO2 concentration as measured by the instruments on Mauna Loa and displayed in the graphic above.

But what about human-produced CO2?  Most human-produced CO2 results from burning methane, propane, butane, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, oil and coal.  We commonly lump these together and call them fossil fuels.  But, a second major source of human-produced CO2 is the production of cement.

Government agencies, academia and industry scientists estimate that CO2 emissions from humans burning fossil fuels increased by 300% (approximately 15% per year) since the year 2000.  Measured in millions of tons of CO2 or carbon, this appears to be a large amount and a large increase.  It is calculated based on the CO2 emitted by burning an amount of fossil fuel. It is not a measurement of CO2 in the atmosphere.  Statistically or visibly examining the slope (first derivative) or examining the rate of change of slope (second derivative) of net atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Keeling data, this apparently large amount of human-produced CO2 since 2000 is not detectable as a change in the first or second derivative.  There are no ‘shark’s teeth’ or other peaks or anomalies caused by the surge in human CO2 emissions;  there are no detectable changes in first or second derivative due to the emission of this apparently large amount of human-produced CO2 which has been emitted into the atmosphere in the relatively short period of time since year 2000.  The emissions of human-produced CO2 are so tiny compared to the net atmospheric CO2 concentration that the human-produced emissions cannot be measured or detected as a change in net atmospheric CO2 concentration, nor a change in the rate of change of net atmospheric CO2 concentration.  In science and statistics, we say that the human-produced CO2 is statistically insignificant with regard to the net atmospheric CO2 concentration. The human contribution of CO2 to the net CO2 flux cannot be differentiated from random noise in the measurement of the very much larger net atmospheric CO2 concentration.  Therefore, human-produced CO2 has no measurable effect on our environment nor on earth’s temperature nor on global warming nor on global cooling.

Accordingly, it follows logically that humans could not change the planet’s temperature by either increasing or decreasing the amount of CO2 in the air.  If humans stopped using all fossil fuels and even stopped breathing, there would be no detectable change in the net CO2 concentration in the air.  The planet will warm, or the planet will cool, or the planet’s temperature will be flat as an average, climate will change, but in any case, human-produced CO2 does not significantly contribute.  It is very important to understand that point.

Therefore, everything else regarding anthropogenic “greenhouse gases” and so-called anthropogenic global warming or anthropogenic climate change is a purely academic subject.  Interesting to some people, but an academic subject.  Hundreds of computer models have been developed costing many millions of dollars to calculate “greenhouse” warming due to anthropogenic CO2 (including the burning of fossil fuels, the volume of cow farts, the eating of meat, etc.), but all of these are purely academic subjects for discussion and study.  They have no measurable effect on earth’s climate.

Professor Dr. D J Easterbrook BSc, MSc, PhD Prof Emeritus Geology Western Washington University pointed out in 2015 that “CO2 is not the “greenhouse effect.” AGW CO2 is adding 0.0000000006342 watts/m²(joules/second.” This is a calculation only.  There is no method to actually measure such as small amount of energy.  “Water Vapor is 90-95% of the “greenhouse effect.””

Regarding methane (CH4) as a “greenhouse gas,” on a molecule by molecule comparison between CO2 and CH4, CH4 absorbs about 80 times more infrared radiation during a 20-year period than CO2.  But, on the other hand, CO2 concentration is two orders of magnitude more than CH4 concentration.  And, the reason for this, as explained earlier, is that the methane spontaneously oxidizes to CO2 and H2O in the open air.  The amount of infrared absorption by a gas is determined by Beer’s Law, which specifies that amount of infrared radiation absorbed is linearly proportional to the concentration of the gas.  Thus, CO2 absorbs far more infrared radiation than CH4, and water vapor – which is about 100 times higher concentration than CO2 – absorbs far more infrared radiation than CO2.  Obviously, humans have no means to control water vapor.

Another part of the earth’s carbon cycle is worth mentioning again.  The slope of net atmospheric CO2 concentration in the air has been consistent since the end of the last ice age.  Net atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing.  Henry’s Law says that 50 to 60 times more CO2 is dissolved in the oceans than in the air.  Logically that implies that the amount of CO2 in the oceans is now and has been increasing since the end of the last ice age.  So, what happens to the CO2 that is dissolved in the oceans?  This is a major part of the earth’s carbon cycle.  CO2 dissolved in water is a weak acid.  This weak acid reacts with calcium (for example but also other minerals), which are dissolved in ocean water.  There is far more calcium on earth and dissolved in the oceans than the total amount carbon in all its forms on earth.  There is enough calcium in ocean water to chemically combine with all of the carbon that exists on earth.  Aquatic chemists describe this as oceans being an infinite sink for carbon.  This weakly acidic form of carbon dioxide in water combines with calcium in water to form limestone, also known as calcium carbonate, or CaCO3.  Limestone is a solid which settles in water to become a sediment on the floor of oceans and seas.  Over years of sedimentation, the limestone is compressed by more and more sediment and becomes rock, or it could be incorporated by mollusks and small sea life into their shells and skeletons.

Humans harvest limestone to make buildings and floors.  We also burn limestone at high temperature, which is how cement is produced.  Burning of limestone to produce cement releases CO2 back into the atmosphere where once again it can be absorbed by plants to start the carbon cycle again.  The other way limestone releases CO2 back into the air is by the high heat from volcanoes, fissures in the earth and similar tectonic events.  There are perhaps thousands of these events continually occurring on land and on the ocean floor, a process which has been occurring continuously for billions of years.  The CO2 emitted from tectonic heating of limestone contributes to the net atmospheric CO2 concentration we see in the Keeling Mauna Loa data. These tectonic processes are orders of magnitude larger than anything humans could do.

In another part of the carbon cycle, enormous amounts of methane (CH4) are formed on the continental shelves in the ocean in a chemical complex with water and a mineral.  It is a slurry similar to mud, which, if you bring it to the surface, can be lit with a match.  The amount of CH4 in this slurry and silt on the floor of the oceans is far larger than the total amount of oil ever discovered, perhaps larger by three orders of magnitude. Where does it come from?  This methane is the product of slow and continuous degradation of the carbohydrate molecules in the cells of every living thing.  When the cells die and are digested down through the food chain by one animal, insect, fish, human, bacteria after another, when it is rotted, then methane remains.  When the molecular bonds in the carbohydrate polymer molecule are broken, the eventual result is methane and water. Rain and rivers eventually carry that CH4 into the oceans, or else it is emitted into the air and oxidized to CO2 as previously described.  This degradation process and the food chain described earlier are part of what is known as the earth’s carbon cycle.

The slurry complex is known as methane clathrate or methane hydrate.  In places around the world there are pools of clathrates that are kilometers thick or slowly flowing down the walls of canyons in the oceans.  Near the boundaries of continents and oceanic plates, deep under the oceans, are subduction zones where the plates of ocean floor meet the continents and are pressed (subducted) beneath the continental shelves.  Clathrate slurries of methane are subducted beneath the continents along with the oceanic plate.  In a very slow process taking millions of years but occurring continuously for billions of years, methane under heat, pressure and containment is reformed into longer and more complex hydrocarbons.  The CH4 forms bonds with other CH4 and larger hydrocarbon molecules are created.  This is the reason we will continue to find more gas and oil and the reason we find gas and oil miles beneath the continents and ocean floor where life has never existed.  The movement of the oceanic plates and continents has been as is today creating oil from the continuously dying and rotting cells of living matter, the slow and continuous breakdown of carbohydrate molecules that were originally created by plants absorbing CO2 from the air.

In summary, the human contribution to the net atmospheric CO2 concentration and to the temperature of the earth is trivial and statistically insignificant.  Negligible. Of academic interest only.  How insignificant?  As an example, let’s say that the earth was cooling, and humans decided to warm the oceans in order to warm the air. Water is denser than air, so water retains heat better than air.  The heat content of the oceans is about 3 orders of magnitude greater than the atmosphere, 5.6 X 10^24 compared to 5 X 10^21 Joules/degree Kelvin.  If we calculate or look up on a website the total power output of all of the power facilities of all kinds on earth, and then assume we will use all of that power to heat the oceans and do nothing else with that power,  it would take about 10,000 years to raise the temperature of the oceans by a mere one degree centigrade.  That is how insignificant the human contribution would be.

However, working to make engines better and fossil fuels burn as efficiently as possible will make our lives more pleasant.  But it is not CO2 that is dirty, or polluting.  As explained above, CO2 is plant food and necessary for life on this planet. More CO2 is better.  But inefficiently or partially burned fossil fuels release hydrocarbons like benzenes into the air which are not good; that is true air pollution.  Reducing real hydrocarbon pollution from inefficient fuel mixtures and inefficient engines is the engineering and chemistry challenge for humans.  Attempts and costs to remove or reduce human-produced CO2 are wasted effort and money.

Also, plastics that have been designed to be non-bio-degradable or non-recyclable. They are ugly to look at, problematic garbage, and destructive for sea life, birds, insects, etc.  Ultimately, these poorly designed plastic products are harmful to the environment and delay the carbon cycle.  But these materials too will eventually break down over long periods of time and release CO2 into the air so that it can feed plants.  Bio-degradable plastics are sensible.

So long as we are discussing the purely academic subject of AGW, there are a few other points worth noting.

Antarctica and Greenland are currently accumulating ice mass, not losing ice mass.  The peninsula of Antarctica that points north toward Argentina has been warming due to sub-ice and sub-sea volcanic activity.  That area has been losing ice on land and sea, but in the last few years, overall the Antarctica continent a net increase of ice on land is observed.  The ice mass gained on land exceeds the ice mass lost on land.  The ice mass on land is increasing and becoming thicker.  The weight of that ice is causing an increase in glacial calving at the coastlines.  And all of this is also observed in Greenland.

Once again, we come back to slope.  The rate of change in sea level (i.e. the slope) has not changed.  That is, the second derivative of sea level has not changed.  Sea level has been increasing (i.e. the slope or first derivative has been positive) since the end of the last ice age; at that time sea level was perhaps 400 feet below today’s sea level.  However, if ice continues to accumulate on land, or if ice mass begins to decrease on land, then we will see a change in the slope of sea levels, (i.e. a change in second derivative of sea level with respect to time.)  So far, there has been no detectable change in slope of sea level.  Sea level has been very slowly rising.

Ice floating in the oceans or floating in lakes, so called sea ice, does not affect sea level.

Multiple studies by NASA and others show that the earth is becoming greener as the net atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased.  Many science studies, and databases of studies, show that more CO2 and more warming increases the growth of green plants in forests, in grains and other foods, etc.  See graphic below.  The human contribution is trivial.  But we can all hope that CO2 continues to increase and that temperatures stay flat or once again begin a slow warming trend.  Average global temperature has been essentially flat (zero slope) for about 20 years now.

The only way carbon gets into plants and thus into animals, insects, fish, humans etc is when the plants absorb CO2 from the air for photosynthesis.  When plants use CO2 to make carbohydrate molecules, they produce oxygen as a byproduct.  Humans and most other non-plant life survive on the oxygen which is produced as a by-product of plant photosynthesis.  Higher net atmospheric CO2 concentration results in more plant growth.  Lower CO2 concentration results less plant growth, which also implies less food and a less green earth.

We now have over 35 years of Landsat satellite imagery showing that a positive (increasing) slope of atmospheric CO2 concentration is greening our planet.  Plant life is flourishing.

CO2 greening

Finally, satellites measuring infrared radiation emitted from earth’s upper atmosphere into outer space are reporting that infrared radiation from earth to outer space is currently decreasing (i.e. the slope or first derivative is negative.)  That means that the earth is receiving less energy from the sun and is therefore emitting less energy into outer space.  In other words, the earth is presently cooling.  It may take years before we perceive or measure this cooling down on earth’s surface due to the insulating effect of the oceans and atmosphere.  The oceans especially act as an enormous insulator, far more than the atmosphere, delaying radiation of energy from the surface back into outer space.

Once again, the impact of human activity on climate change, while purely academic, is interesting to study, but, as you can see from the information provided above, the actions of humans with regard to CO2 emissions will have no measurable impact on global warming or global cooling.  Probably the most significant thing we can do is to plant more forests and stop cutting rainforests.

 

 

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The politically correct dogma is self-contradictory

Slavery was ended by a worldwide movement among Christians in the 19th century, predominantly white, male Christians, no doubt supported or instigated by their Christian wives, but white men were clearly in control at that time. Prior to that, all religions, races and cultures accepted slavery. The Popes condoned it. The Jewish Torah condones it. Slavery has been part of Islam since it began. The Koran condones it. Slavery still exists in Islamic countries today. Slavery is in the Bible, for example in Genesis the Canaanites were enslaved. Slavery was in Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Black Africa continues slavery today. Islamic black tribal Africa was the foundation and the suppliers of black slaves to the Americas. American Indians continued to hold and trade slaves after the U.S. Civil War. All major races, religions and cultures had slaves.
As Stefan Moleneux reminds us on Twitter: “All cultures practiced slavery. Christians ended it. Your bitter cynicism cannot strip Christians of that singular moral crown.”
That leads me to a couple of questions. First, identity-politics Democrats like Stacey Adams, Kamala Harris, Elizabeth Warren, etc. propose that reparations should be paid to blacks because they endured slavery. If I follow their identity politics to its obvious conclusion, not that I agree, why should white Christians pay reparations when they are the exact people who ended slavery and hundreds of thousands white Christian men died to end slavery?
And my second question is: when and if Democrats, athiests, Islamists, and communists end Christianity and God-worshipping Judaism and especially white male versions of those two religions, where is the morality to prevent the return of slavery in America, Europe and South America? Open borders multi-culturalism is amoral…it has no morality and considers all morals, all cultures, all values to be equal.
The politically correct dogma is self-contradictory and will result in the return of slavery if continued.  The politically correct dogma is subversion that will result in loss of your values, your culture, your nation, and your liberty.  Caveat emptor.
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How to Destroy a Nation

Watch:

 

Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Full book pdf for free.

https://ia600503.us.archive.org/28/items/ArtOfWarBySunTzu/Art-of-War-%20by%20sun%20tzu.pdf

Sun Tzu – Deciphering Sun Tzu How to Read The Art of War.  This free book at the link below provides an overall theoretical framework for understanding Chinese strategic thought in Sun Tzu’s ‘The Art of War,’ This will help Western readers understand the different components as well as the horizontal and vertical dimensions of Chinese strategic thought—in other words, the system of Chinese strategic thought as a whole. Second, the book aims to provide a more detailed historical analysis of the factors and developments responsible for the making of The Art of War. The book explores the military, strategic, diplomatic, and cultural origins of The Art of War and Sun Tzu’s zeitgeist, thereby providing an analysis that tran-scends the old and ineffective method of studying Sun Tzu’s maxims in a decontextualized and almost purely theoretical manner. Free pdf download.

https://ia802906.us.archive.org/8/items/SunTzuDecipheringSunTzuHowToReadTheArtOfWar/Sun%20Tzu%20-%20Deciphering%20Sun%20Tzu%20How%20to%20Read%20The%20Art%20of%20War.pdf

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Wake up the UN. The earth is greening.

“We now have over 35 years of Landsat satellite imagery showing that with increasing carbon dioxide the planet is greening,and plant life is flourishing. Yet, the UN reports ignore the benefits of CO2.”

“Recently, the UK had children protesting CO2 emissions under the banner of “Extinction Rebellion,” implying that continued CO2 emissions will cause extinction. These events and the new UN report prompt a perplexing question: which group is more immature? The children of the Extinction Rebellion, who believe adults claiming dangers of CO2. Or, the “experts” at the UN claiming 1,000,000 species are about to go extinct from CO2, despite decades of evidence showing plant life is flourishing from more CO2.”

~ Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environment Policy Project, May 11, 2019.

Link to key paper: Greening of the Earth and its driversBy Zaichun Zhu, et al. Nature Climate Change, Apr 25, 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate3004

Link to NASA Web Site: Carbon Dioxide Fertilization Greening Earth, Study FindsBy Samson Reiny, NASA, Apr 26, 2016 https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/carbon-dioxide-fertilization-greening-earth

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A few important CO2 facts

Regardless how one might construe the atmospheric physics of CO2, a few critical facts remain, and the subject is academic:

(1) There is a statistically significant correlation between temperature and CO2 emissions and these data are robust.

(2) The current trend of increasing CO2 is a consequence (an effect) of warming, not the cause of warming.

(3) The 300% increase in CO2 emissions from fossil fuels since 2000 is so small relative to the overall net natural CO2 increasing trend that it is undetectable, and

(4) since human-produced CO2 is not affecting the overall net rate of CO2 increase, then by logical inference human-produced CO2 cannot be significantly affecting temperature, and

(5) these data are statistically robust.

(6) Warmer oceans desorb CO2 into air and colder water absorbs CO2 into the water.

(7) There is about 50 times more CO2 in the oceans than in the atmosphere, and the oceans are an infinite sink for CO2, such that the oceans can never become acidic due to CO2. There is not enough carbon on earth to make the pH of the oceans less than 7, or acidic.

(8) Except for limited runs done of the Russian climate model, the other 100+ climate models fail to validate, that is the models fail to predict known temperatures,

(9) The Russian climate model predicts cooling, not warming.

(10) The hypothesis of human-caused global warming due to CO2 is falsified.

(11) The only pathway for carbon to enter the food chain that sustains life on this planet is via atmospheric CO2 absorption by plants.

(12) Since atmospheric CO2 concentration is not far above paleo historic lows, efforts to limit CO2 emissions are by definition self-destructive.

(13) Far more people die from cold than from warmth.

(14) According to satellite studies the planet is getting greener as CO2 concentration increases.

(15) The predicted sensitivity of climate to increasing CO2 which is found in many years of peer-reviewed science publication has been declining.

(16) Despite the large and continuing increase in total atmospheric CO2 concentration, of which 99.9% is non-human, no statistically significant increase is detected in the rate of change of sea level increase. This is contrary to AGW theory and UN IPCC predictions.

(17) Despite the large and continuing increase in total atmospheric CO2 concentration, of which 99.9% is non-human, no “tropical hotspot” is detectable, contrary to AGW theory and UN IPCC prediction.

(16) Earth is reliably predicted to have recently entered a cooling trend.

(17) CO2 trend and temperature trend are diverging, contrary to AGW theory.

 

References

  • Professor Salby:

 

 

  • Professor Munshi:

https://budbromley.blog/2019/05/01/responsiveness-of-atmospheric-co2-to-anthropogenic-emissions-by-jamal-munshi/

https://budbromley.blog/2019/05/06/no-correlation-between-fossil-fuel-emissions-and-atmospheric-co2/

  • Professor Valentina V. Zharkova:

 

 

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Those promoting human-caused global warming are hucksters

Those promoting human-caused global warming are hucksters and those taken in by hucksters. Hucksters like Jimmy Kimmel, George Clooney, Al Gore, AOC, Barack Obama, the United Nations, the European Union, the Sierra Club, Greenpeace, CNN, NBC, ABC, CBS, the New York Times, The Washington Post, and the political leaders of over 100 nations.
Please consider NASA Sees Climate Cooling Trend Thanks to Low Sun Activity.
“We see a cooling trend,” said Martin Mlynczak of NASA’s Langley Research Center. “High above Earth’s surface, near the edge of space, our atmosphere is losing heat energy. If current trends continue, it could soon set a Space Age record for cold.”
The new data is coming from NASA’s Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry or SABER instrument, which is onboard the space agency’s Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER monitors infrared radiation from carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO), two substances that play a vital role in the energy output of our thermosphere, the very top level of our atmosphere.
“The thermosphere always cools off during Solar Minimum. It’s one of the most important ways the solar cycle affects our planet,” said Mlynczak, who is the associate principal investigator for SABER.
The new NASA findings are in line with studies released by UC-San Diego and Northumbria University in Great Britain last year, both of which predict a Grand Solar Minimum in coming decades due to low sunspot activity. Both studies predicted sun activity similar to the Maunder Minimum of the mid-17th to early 18th centuries, which coincided to a time known as the Little Ice Age, during which temperatures were much lower than those of today.
Clooney’s video:   https://youtu.be/0Ab4BRAQElw
Article above is by Mike Sherlock atTownhall.com, Jan 30 2019, except first paragraph and Clooney’s video.

Then there is this from Time Magazine.  http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,944914,00.html?fbclid=IwAR02tacIOY-yem4rq0fqKNfifHmB8GLdBzpygHAEZJmZScTFr2W5gAXUozU

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Former CIA Officer explains Spygate

Former CIA Officer Kevin Shipp explains Spygate.  “This is the most shocking violation of the Constitution and criminal activity in the history, not just of America, but of a western government,” said Shipp. “Much of this rises to the level of treason. People need to understand how shocking this is. It was a clear conspiracy…There will be arrests and indictments without question…This was a coup. It was a conspiracy. It was criminal activity. These people need to be indicted, charged and need to be put in prison, and if they’re not, then our Constitution is nothing more than a sham.”

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=89&v=hRPn06VovvE

U.S. Attorney General Barr Appoints US Attorney to Investigate Govt Spying on Trump Campaign.  Barr appointed the same guy that investigated CIA destruction of torture videotapes.

https://bongino.com/breaking-barr-appoints-us-attorney-to-investigate-fbi-spying-on-trump-campaign/


Kevin Shipp bio

Kevin Shipp, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Officer, intelligence and counter terrorism expert, held several high-level positions in the CIA.

He is the only CIA officer in history to publicly expose government illegal activity and cover up, stand up against the state secrets privilege at great personal risk, and build a secret code in the manuscript of his book.

His assignments included:

  • Category 1 CIA Officer
  • Protective agent for the Director of the CIA
  • Counterintelligence investigator searching for moles inside the CIA
  • Overseas counter terrorism operations officer and HUMINT collector
  • Internal security investigator
  • Chief of training for the CIA federal police force
  • Polygraph examiner
  • Program Manager, Department of State Ant-terrorism Assistance Program
  • Supervisor, high risk protective detail for Afghan President Mohammed Karzai

Awards:

  • Recipient of two CIA Meritorious Unit Citations, three Exceptional Performance Awards and a Medallion for high risk overseas operations

Education:

  • Bachelor’s degree in biology
  • Master’s level degree in forensic psycho physiology
  • Certified CIA counter terrorism driving instructor, counter surveillance and tactical firearms instructor

Author:

  • Best-selling book, From the Company of Shadows – an expose’ on CIA operations and the abuse of government secrecy

Mr. Shipp has come out to expose what he calls, “The Shadow Government/Deep State,” the massive system of secrecy and corruption that controls the elected US government behind the scenes.

He publishes monthly video updates on the Shadow Government/Deep State, alerts on illegal and corporate government surveillance, government violations of the US Constitution, and what you can do about it.

4loveoffreedom@gmail.com                                                                                                                                  

Links:

Donate/video production, travel expenses https://www.paypal.me/ascentllc

Monthly Sponsor Only videos: Patreon.com/Kevin_Shipp

Twitter Updates: @Kevin_Shipp

You Tube channel:

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAGBT7-06gECLJus3o2SE3w

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The Bankers Did It

When you are sitting there in real time you realize that you are neither one nor the other. We are neither a democracy nor a republic. That is the beauty and genius of it. Ideology be damned, they said. Give us freedom or give us death. Crazy King George went nuts.

Now it is the almighty dollar (bearing the stamp of a different George, one who was not crazy,  and to be king of America) that holds the world back along with the gravity of all its souls. The bankers created a monster.

The people must regain control of the dictionary, the definitions of words.

The government and mainstream media are writing the dictionaries.

Social media does that for them.

Therefore, freedom of speech, press, religion, thought and right of assembly must be protected by the U.S. government.

The people and their government must protect search engines from any monopolizing forces, which includes the NSA, Facebook, Microsoft, ARM, the courts, the military and its industrial complex, the CFR.  All of these can be bought.

If you owe anything, you can be bought.

Genius isn’t it.

Debt is institutionalized transaction fees.

They turned the U.S. dollar from an asset to a liability.

And they will expect the rest of us to pay for their mistake.

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