North Carolina man tells his school board that parents are taking their country back

Short video

Critical Race Theory (CRT) promoted by government at all levels and teachers unions is institutionalized racism and the ‘divide and conquer’ identity politics of so-called community organizers. Fire your school board or take your children to a different school if they are teaching CRT and transgenderism.

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U.S. Representative, Democrat of Pennsylvania, Pleads Guilty to Mass Voter Fraud: Thousands of Dollars Paid to Crooked Judges

That such an elaborate scheme existed for a long time raises questions of whether such schemes existed in the 2020 presidential elections.

Source: Dem Rep Pleads Guilty to Mass Voter Fraud: Thousands of Dollars Paid to Crooked Judges

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Here Are the Deep State Officials Who Told Us Hunter Biden’s Laptop Was ‘Russian Disinformation’

Story here: Here Are the Deep State Officials Who Told Us Hunter Biden’s Laptop Was ‘Russian Disinformation’ 

The following U.S. government official or former officials acted to corrupt the U.S. presidential election of 2020 and should be prosecuted under federal election laws. This was less than one month before the election and the voting public had the right to know and should have been informed by these officials, but instead they acted to hide and discredit the information. The list and the published statement by the perpetrators is here:

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Costs & Consequences

by Larry Bryan

The misinformation that has existed for several decades about CO2 from human activity being the cause of global warming and climate change is causing governments and others to misallocate and spend trillions of dollars (hat could be better spent on other significant issues) on a problem that does not exist and also adopt policies that are having far reaching and very painful consequences. A few examples. . .

The US government has allocated over 2 trillion to solve the global warming climate change issue. . .primarily by getting rid of fossil fuels and CO2. The money required to fund this initiative will have to be borrowed. This will raise the debt and reduce the amount of capital that is available for investment and economic growth by the private sector. Alternatively, the US government will just print money to fund these policies and that will result in higher inflation, higher costs and lower standards of living.

Each year the US government and other organizations give billions of dollars to universities and others to study the impact of CO2 on the environment, when there is not really a need to do so because it is a non problem.

The US government has and is implementing policies are aimed at eliminating fossil fuels, which are the most cost effective forms of energy known to man. Eliminating fossil fuels means that all of the products that are made from plastics, such as those used in hospitals and many other essential operations, will no longer be able to be made. There are no known alternatives. These policies will result in permanently higher energy costs which will cause living costs around the world to soar.

Politicians and government bureaucracies around the world have been and are using the climate change issue to increase their political power and control over the societies that they govern. As a result, government bureaucracies and regulations will continue to grow. Such growth reduces individual freedom and liberty.

CO2 is plant food. Without CO2 plants cannot survive because it is a key ingredient in photosynthesis. Less CO2 means less plants and less oxygen for humans and animals to breathe (oxygen is a by-product of photosynthesis).

Correcting Misinformation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

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Truth from the border: the untold story of the U.S. border

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A Harvard student’s senior speech

This is Julie Hartman speaking May 18, 2022. Harvard College class of 2022. About 6 minutes and well worth the time.

Thank you and congratulations Julie!

Her website is

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41 Inconvenient Truths on the “New Energy Economy”

Bill Gates has said that when it comes to understanding energy realities “we need to bring math to the problem.” He’s right.

Sunday, July 7, 2019

A week doesn’t pass without a mayor, governor, policymaker or pundit joining the rush to demand, or predict, an energy future that is entirely based on wind/solar and batteries, freed from the “burden” of the hydrocarbons that have fueled societies for centuries. Regardless of one’s opinion about whether, or why, an energy “transformation” is called for, the physics and economics of energy combined with scale realities make it clear that there is no possibility of anything resembling a radically “new energy economy” in the foreseeable future. Bill Gates has said that when it comes to understanding energy realities “we need to bring math to the problem.”

He’s right. So, in my recent Manhattan Institute report, “The New Energy Economy: An Exercise in Magical Thinking,” I did just that.

Herein, then, is a summary of some of the bottom-line realities from the underlying math. (See the full report for explanations, documentation, and citations.)

1. Hydrocarbons supply over 80 percent of world energy: If all that were in the form of oil, the barrels would line up from Washington, D.C., to Los Angeles, and that entire line would grow by the height of the Washington Monument every week.

2. The small two-percentage-point decline in the hydrocarbon share of world energy use entailed over $2 trillion in cumulative global spending on alternatives over that period; solar and wind today supply less than two percent of the global energy.

3. When the world’s four billion poor people increase energy use to just one-third of Europe’s per capita level, global demand rises by an amount equal to twice America’s total consumption.

4. A 100x growth in the number of electric vehicles to 400 million on the roads by 2040 would displace five percent of global oil demand.

5. Renewable energy would have to expand 90-fold to replace global hydrocarbons in two decades. It took a half-century for global petroleum production to expand “only” ten-fold.

6. Replacing U.S. hydrocarbon-based electric generation over the next 30 years would require a construction program building out the grid at a rate 14-fold greater than any time in history.

7. Eliminating hydrocarbons to make U.S. electricity (impossible soon, infeasible for decades) would leave untouched 70 percent of U.S. hydrocarbons use—America uses 16 percent of world energy.

Since 1995, total world energy use rose by 50 percent, an amount equal to adding two entire United States’ worth of demand.

8. Efficiency increases energy demand by making products & services cheaper: since 1990, global energy efficiency improved 33 percent, the economy grew 80 percent and global energy use is up 40 percent.

9. Efficiency increases energy demand: Since 1995, aviation fuel use/passenger-mile is down 70 percent, air traffic rose more than 10-fold, and global aviation fuel use rose over 50 percent.

10. Efficiency increases energy demand: since 1995, energy used per byte is down about 10,000-fold, but global data traffic rose about a million-fold; global electricity used for computing soared.

11. Since 1995, total world energy use rose by 50 percent, an amount equal to adding two entire United States’ worth of demand.

12. For security and reliability, an average of two months of national demand for hydrocarbons are in storage at any time. Today, barely two hours of national electricity demand can be stored in all utility-scale batteries plus all batteries in one million electric cars in America.

13. Batteries produced annually by the Tesla Gigafactory (world’s biggest battery factory) can store three minutes worth of annual U.S. electric demand.

14. To make enough batteries to store two day’s worth of U.S. electricity demand would require 1,000 years of production by the Gigafactory (world’s biggest battery factory).

15. Every $1 billion in aircraft produced leads to some $5 billion in aviation fuel consumed over two decades to operate them. Global spending on new jets is more than $50 billion a year—and rising.

16. Every $1 billion spent on data centers leads to $7 billion in electricity consumed over two decades. Global spending on data centers is more than $100 billion a year—and rising.

17. Over a 30-year period, $1 million worth of utility-scale solar or wind produces 40 million and 55 million kWh respectively: $1 million worth of shale well produces enough natural gas to generate 300 million kWh over 30 years.

18. It costs about the same to build one shale well or two wind turbines: the latter, combined, produces 0.7 barrels of oil (equivalent energy) per hour, the shale rig averages 10 barrels of oil per hour.

19. It costs less than $0.50 to store a barrel of oil, or its equivalent in natural gas, but it costs $200 to store the equivalent energy of a barrel of oil in batteries.

20. Cost models for wind and solar assume, respectively, 41 percent and 29 percent capacity factors (i.e., how often they produce electricity). Real-world data reveal as much as ten percentage points less for both. That translates into $3 million less energy produced than assumed over a 20-year life of a 2-MW $3 million wind turbine.

If solar power scaled like computer-tech, a single postage-stamp-size solar array would power the Empire State Building. That only happens in comic books.

21. In order to compensate for episodic wind/solar output, U.S. utilities are using oil- and gas-burning reciprocating engines (big cruise-ship-like diesels); three times as many have been added to the grid since 2000 as in the 50 years prior to that.

22. Wind-farm capacity factors have improved at about 0.7 percent per year; this small gain comes mainly from reducing the number of turbines per acre leading to a 50 percent increase in average land used to produce a wind-kilowatt-hour.

23. Over 90 percent of America’s electricity, and 99 percent of the power used in transportation, comes from sources that can easily supply energy to the economy any time the market demands it.

24. Wind and solar machines produce energy an average of 25 percent–30 percent of the time, and only when nature permits. Conventional power plants can operate nearly continuously and are available when needed.

25. The shale revolution collapsed the prices of natural gas & coal, the two fuels that produce 70 percent of U.S. electricity. But electric rates haven’t gone down, rising instead 20 percent since 2008. Direct and indirect subsidies for solar and wind consumed those savings.

26. Politicians and pundits like to invoke “moonshot” language. But transforming the energy economy is not like putting a few people on the moon a few times. It is like putting all of humanity on the moon—permanently.

27. The common cliché: an energy tech disruption will echo the digital tech disruption. But information-producing machines and energy-producing machines involve profoundly different physics; the cliché is sillier than comparing apples to bowling balls.

28. If solar power scaled like computer-tech, a single postage-stamp-size solar array would power the Empire State Building. That only happens in comic books.

29. If batteries scaled like digital tech, a battery the size of a book, costing three cents, could power a jetliner to Asia. That only happens in comic books.

EVs using Chinese batteries will create more carbon-dioxide than saved by replacing oil-burning engines.

30. If combustion engines scaled like computers, a car engine would shrink to the size of an ant and produce a thousand-fold more horsepower; actual ant-sized engines produce 100,000 times less power.

31. No digital-like 10x gains exist for solar tech. Physics limit for solar cells (the Shockley-Queisser limit) is a max conversion of about 33 percent of photons into electrons; commercial cells today are at 26 percent.

32. No digital-like 10x gains exist for wind tech. Physics limit for wind turbines (the Betz limit) is a max capture of 60 percent of energy in moving air; commercial turbines achieve 45 percent.

33. No digital-like 10x gains exist for batteries: maximum theoretical energy in a pound of oil is 1,500 percent greater than max theoretical energy in the best pound of battery chemicals.

34. About 60 pounds of batteries are needed to store the energy equivalent of one pound of hydrocarbons.

35. At least 100 pounds of materials are mined, moved and processed for every pound of battery fabricated.

36. Storing the energy equivalent of one barrel of oil, which weighs 300 pounds, requires 20,000 pounds of Tesla batteries ($200,000 worth).

37. Carrying the energy equivalent of the aviation fuel used by an aircraft flying to Asia would require $60 million worth of Tesla-type batteries weighing five times more than that aircraft.

38. It takes the energy equivalent of 100 barrels of oil to fabricate a quantity of batteries that can store the energy equivalent of a single barrel of oil.

39. A battery-centric grid and car world means mining gigatons more of the earth to access lithium, copper, nickel, graphite, rare earths, cobalt, etc.—and using millions of tons of oil and coal both in mining and to fabricate metals and concrete.

40. China dominates global battery production with its grid 70 percent coal-fueled: EVs using Chinese batteries will create more carbon-dioxide than saved by replacing oil-burning engines.

41. One would no more use helicopters for regular trans-Atlantic travel—doable with elaborately expensive logistics—than employ a nuclear reactor to power a train or photovoltaic systems to power a nation.

This article is republished with permission from Economics 21. 

Mark P.  Mills
Mark P. Mills

Mark P. Mills is a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute, a McCormick School of Engineering Faculty Fellow at Northwestern University, and author of Work in the Age of Robots, published by Encounter Books.

This article was originally published on Read the original article.

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Correcting Misinformation on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

Pinatubo Study Phase 1 Report

By: Bud Bromley, April 29, 2022

Contributing Editor:  Tomer Tamarkin


Digital signal processing technology was used to analyze daily carbon dioxide data from the joint NOAA – Scripps Oceanographic Institution’s Global Monitoring Laboratory (MLO).  The period surrounding the 1991 eruption of the Pinatubo volcano was rigorously analyzed for slope and acceleration of net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration and found to be consistent with the theory that Henry’s Law, the Law of Mass Action, and Le Chatelier’s principle control net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration rather than human-produced CO2 emissions.  Background and theory are explained.  A method of using common physics and math for a novel purpose is presented to compare natural CO2 emission or absorption with human-produced CO2 emission.  The claim that human-produced CO2 emission is causing increasing global CO2 concentration and climate change is shown to be without scientific merit.  

Key words: carbon, CO2, climate, warming, Impulse, Pinatubo, Henry’s Law, Mauna Loa 


William Henry tested and documented his series of experiments on different gas and liquid combinations under various conditions which were published in 1803. (Henry, 1803)   Today, the coefficients he developed are now available in tables in reference books and software which are used routinely by chemists and chemical engineers.  This stable science is known today as Henry’s Law and is a foundation science for several large industries.  Though it is not common knowledge among the public and only rarely found in climatology literature, Henry’s Law is the fundamental science for the multi-billion dollar per year scientific instrumentation industry of gas chromatography, which is one of the methods used to measure atmospheric gases and most chemicals.  It is also a fundamental science underlying chemical engineering in gas, oil and coal refining and the beer and carbonated beverage industries.   Also, it is one of the major variables in the absorption and emission exchanges of oxygen and carbon dioxide and other gases in the lungs and gills of all animals. 

Figure 1. Photo of Pinatubo eruption by Dave Harlowe, USGS. Public domain

The Pinatubo eruption pictured in Figure 1 and its causes and effects are the subjects of many studies, for example, Stenchikov (2021).   

An excerpt from Science News at the time from Hoppe (1992):

Ellsworth G. Dutton, a meteorologist with NOAA’s Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory in Boulder, Colo., traced the effects of Pinatubo’s cloud with ground-based instruments that directly measure the strength of sunlight. Dutton says his results show a 20 to 30 percent decline in the amount of solar radiation that reaches the ground without being scattered or reflected, and a 2 to 4 percent decline in total solar radiation.

Temperatures have already started to drop, both at ground level and in the lower atmosphere, says James K. Angell of NOAA in Silver Spring, Md. Angell told Science News his analyses of weather balloon data show that the first half of 1992 was 0.4 [degrees] C cooler, overall, than the first half of 1991. He notes that the volcano’s effect may be greater than suggested by these observed temperature shifts, since this year’s El Nino warming would normally raise average temperatures by 0.2 [degrees] C (SN: 1/18/92, p.37).

Weather satellites confirm cooling in the lower atmosphere, recording a global drop of more than 0.5 [degrees] C since last June, with this June being 0.2 [degrees] C cooler than average, according to John Christy of the University of Alabama at Huntsville and Roy Spencer of NASA’s Earth Science Lab at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville. Christy says their data indicate that the greatest cooling, 1.0 [degrees] C, occurred in the northern midlatitudes — an area that includes the continental United States — while temperatures in the southern hemisphere have dropped by only 0.3 [degrees] C

Figure 2 from the Mauna Loa Observatory shows reduced atmospheric transmission of solar radiation due to volcanic aerosols after the Pinatubo volcanic eruption.

Figure 2. Mauna Loa Observatory, 2005.
Figure 3. Global natural temperature anomaly (blue) superimposed on the observed (red) temperature anomaly. The blue anomaly is derived using the observed low cloud cover data. Kauppinen & Malmi, 2019.

Pinatubo was the largest or second largest volcanic explosion observed on Earth in the last 100 years.  The explosion resulted in a belt of clouds, dust, various gases, and particles encircling and spreading in the atmosphere around Earth’s tropical zone, which is about 20 degrees latitude both north and south of the equator.  In this large zone, ocean surface temperature averages 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) year-round, in contrast to average ocean temperature of 17 degrees C.  Figure 3 shows the large negative change in temperature after the Pinatubo eruption.

On average, ocean surface above 25 degrees C or 298.15 Kelvin is a net emitter of CO2 gas, day and night, year-round.  That is, more CO2 is being released from ocean surface than is absorbed from among the CO2 molecules which are continuously colliding with the ocean surface.  (25 degrees C is not a set point like a boiling point. It is a standard agreed by standards organizations, part of Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP). The belt of clouds, gases, and particles, etc., encircling the tropics is assumed by all known reports to have reduced short wave solar insolation reaching the surface; incoming sun light around 400 to 700 nanometer wavelength was shaded, blocked, absorbed, reflected, scattered, or otherwise obfuscated.  Consequently, tropical ocean surface cooled.  Higher latitude ocean surface cooled also. 

Our theory is that Henry’s Law controls net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration and human CO2 emission only temporarily perturbs net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration and its rate of change. There are knowledgeable groups of scientists, such as chemists, analytical chemists, and chemical engineers, as well as individual scientists in other fields who support this theory.  But this theory is rarely studied or found in climate literature and rarely funded in government environmental work.  Generally, papers concerning Henry’s Law and climate are found only in less well-known journals.

Henry’s Law is a reproducible, well-documented law of chemistry and physics which defines the ratio of any gas in contact with any liquid.  Each gas and liquid combination has a specific Henry’s Law coefficient, herein denoted kH.   The coefficient is not a constant; kH varies with temperature at the gas – liquid interchange surface. Concentration of CO2 (g) in seawater is inversely proportional to sea surface temperature.  

The Henry’s Law phase-state equilibrium equation can be rearranged and derived for several different important applications, for example, solubility or volatility. As used here, kH is ratio of the moles of aqueous-phase CO2 gas per mole of water versus the moles of gas-phase CO2 gas per mole of air above the water surface. This resulting partition ratio, known as the Henry’s coefficient ratio is dimensionless, i.e., without units. As used here kH is the same as Hscc or Hcc in Sander (2015).

kH = [CO2(aq)] / [CO2(g)] is dimensionless and temperature dependent.  (1)

Henry’s Law has limitations on its application.

1. Henry’s Law only applies when the concentration of the unreacted gas in the liquid is minor and when the concentration of gas being measured in the gas volume above the liquid (i.e., its partial pressure) is minor relative to the other gases in the volume.  An oversaturation condition is observed in chromatography by an abnormal, non-Gaussian peak shape.  Henry’s Law is applicable to CO2 gas since it is a trace gas in both the atmosphere and in the ocean even at 10 times current concentrations.    

2. Henry’s Law only applies to the gas in the liquid which has not reacted with the liquid; that is, Henry’s Law only applies to the reversible phase-state equilibrium reaction [CO2(g)] <-> aqueous [CO2(g)].  Henry’s Law does not apply to ionized CO2 gas, that is, hydrated CO2, nor to any of the carbonate or bicarbonate ions or un-ionized carbonic acid that are products of aqueous CO2 gas known collectively as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC).

The total concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon from Cohen and Happer (2021):

[C] = [CO2] + [HCO− 3] + [CO2− 3] (2)

After the hydration of CO2(aq) in acid-based reaction with water ions, the solubility coefficients of the subsequent species vary with (a) temperature of the surface (b) salinity of the liquid including certain minerals which are dissolved in the liquid not only sodium chloride, (c) alkalinity or pH or the liquid, (d) partial pressure of the gas in the space above the liquid and (e) partial pressure of the gas in the liquid.  High diligence is needed in sampling procedures to control (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e). 

Most of the CO2 in seawater is in DIC form, which, according to most estimates, is on the order of 38,000 gigatonnes (Gt) of DIC dissolved or reacted in deep seawater. Meanwhile 1000 Gt of DIC is estimated to be in surface seawater and 850 Gt in air. (One Gt is 1000 billion kilograms, that is, 1 followed by 12 zeros, or 1 X 1012 kilograms).  Figure 4 below (Cohen & Happer, 2021) illustrates the relative molar stoichiometric concentrations of the DIC species in ocean corresponding to atmospheric CO2 concentration. Barely visible, the fine dotted green line slightly above the horizontal axis is increasing. The concentration of the CO2(aq) species of DIC in ocean and the concentration of the bicarbonate species in ocean are both increasing as atmospheric CO2 concentration increases.  Simultaneously, the carbonate ion [CO2− 3] of carbonic acid is decreasing, along with alleged problems of so-called “ocean acidification”.

Average ocean water is above pH 8, which means ocean is alkaline, not acidic. For example, if pH were to change to 7.9, then the ocean is not more acidified because at 7.9 there is an excess of alkaline ions to neutralize acid ions, thus ocean is simply less alkaline. Ocean acidification is a misnomer.  

Figure 4. Inorganic carbon in ocean water: uncharged [CO2], bicarbonate [HCO3], carbonate [CO32] and total [C] versus concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.  Calculated under the assumption of complete chemical equilibrium.  The ocean alkalinity is [A] = 2.3 X 10-3 and the temperature is T = 25 C (Cohen & Happer, 2021).

Since no alternative CO2 sink of sufficient size or rate is known, then CO2 gas must be rapidly absorbed into sea surface when the surface cools.  Ocean surface demonstrates the capacity to rapidly absorb orders of magnitude more CO2 than humans produce, and then recover to trend. It is imperative to recognize that these reactions of ionized CO2 (DIC) are rapidly reversible reactions. In the following discussion, we do not rely on estimates or models of CO2 in air and seawater to demonstrate this point.

Aqueous CO2(g) <-> H+ + HCO3 (3)

Most CO2 in seawater is in the ionized form HCO3 known as bicarbonate as shown above in figure 4 (Cohen & Happer, 2021).  Minor changes in ocean surface temperature reverse the CO2 hydration reaction and aqueous CO2 gas is formed.  Colder water pushes this reaction to the right, to products.  Warmer water pushes the reaction to the left, to reactants. Once in its aqueous CO2 gas state, then the Henry’s Law dynamic equilibrium applies: for a given seawater surface temperature, there is a fixed ratio of CO2 gas concentration in air versus CO2 gas concentration in seawater surface which is in contact with the air.  Depending on changes in surface conditions, aqueous CO2 gas could react with H2O to become H2CO3 (carbonic acid), or it could react with H2O to become HCO3(bicarbonate) plus hydrogen ion (hydronium), or it could remain in the water matrix as aqueous CO2 gas, or it could be emitted to the atmosphere as CO2 gas.  

Cohen and Happer (2021) point out that transition of only a single proton (a hydrogen ion), determines bicarbonate versus carbonic acid species.  The various DIC species are surrounded in the seawater matrix by hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.  CO2 gas molecules and DIC ions are not required to move in the seawater matrix.  Both bicarbonate ion and carbonic acid are separate reaction products of the aqueous CO2 gas hydration reaction with H2O, as well as reversible with each other, as shown in the next graphic.  In seawater surface these reactions can reverse in seconds due to changing surface temperature, or agitation by waves, buoys and moving ships, or a sampling procedure, or by an upwelling water current dense with DIC (e.g., an El Nino current).  As upwelling seawater dense with DIC comes to the surface, it warms, and aqueous CO2 gas in the surface becomes oversaturated, out of balance with the Henry’s Law ratio for the temperature at the surface, resulting in CO2 gas being emitted to the air and a rebalancing the Henry’s Law dynamic equilibrium for that temperature. 

Professor Daniel Mazza explains reversible reactions of higher order (Mazza, 2020, pp16-17):

 At any given temperature, the value of Keq remains constant no matter whether you start with A and B, or C and D, and regardless of the proportions in which they are mixed. Keq varies with temperature because k1, and k2 vary with temperature, but not by exactly the same amount. 

… the general formulation of the law of mass action (Guldberg-Waage, 1864) that states: in a chemical system at equilibrium and constant temperature, the ratio between the product of the concentrations of chemicals formed (each elevated to its stoichiometric coefficient) and that of the reagents is a constant value.

The reactants and products of the carbonate chemistry in seawater are difficult to sample and quantify with precision because the reactions are so rapid and only very minor changes in surface conditions are required to change the dynamic equilibrium by increasing the ocean surface area in contact with air. Taking a sample affects the reactions. Special methods and systems must be used for these analyses at the thin layer at ocean surface.  Journal and online articles report years or hundreds of years are required to move large amounts of CO2, allegedly because migration of CO2 vertically or horizontally in the water matrix is slow.  There are such slow changes, with El Ninos and La Ninas being prime examples. However, simultaneously, second by second, bulk CO2 gas is continuously in flux into and out of millions of square kilometers of ocean surface, driven by SST change and CO2 is converting in seconds from one ionic species to another and aqueous CO2 gas is either released to air or hydrated to carbonic acid or bicarbonate.  Additional data experiments will probably reveal that slower or continuous changes such as human emissions are anomalous perturbations to the trend of the dynamic equilibrium for the local surface temperature.  Adding or subtracting CO2 from any source or for any residence time or emission rate does not change the Henry’s ratio for a given temperature.                  

Demonstrating an example of this bulk sea surface reaction and its enormous quantity and rate in the natural environment as observed in the Mauna Loa data is a primary objective of this study.        

Note that the hydration reaction of aqueous CO2 gas with H2O, (3) in Figure 5, is cyclical. Each reaction (1), (2) and (3) is reversible. The forward (left to right) and reverse direction (right to left) are not equal in each of the three reactions.

Figure 5. Stumm & Morgan (1996, p.192)       

Changes in kinetics force the reactions forward or backward. Changes in kinetics are changes in motion of molecules.  Agitating the surface of the ocean warms the water, which changes the Henry’s Law ratio, increases the partial pressure of CO2 gas in ocean surface. Those kinetic changes result from heating, cooling or agitation of the sea surface by waves, ships underway and buoy motion, currents, storms, gas and water sampling procedures, etc.  For example, warm tropical sea surface that is normally continuously emitting CO2 gas can be depleted of CO2 gas by wind, storms, hurricanes, typhoons, etc. with the result that the undersaturated sea surface is subsequently absorbing CO2 from air instead of emitting.  Significant sampling problems in actual sea water include CO2 gas added or subtracted by the biology – living and dead – in the sea, currents of seawater dense with CO2 upwelling from deep ocean to the surface, and sampling sea surface when the necessary representative sample is only the top centimeter or less thin layer.        

Simultaneously with the portion of the carbonate chemistry described above, calcium ions (Ca2+), which are readily available in seawater in great excess to carbon, react with bicarbonate ions (HCO3) producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3).  This reaction is not included in the Henry’s Law equilibrium, and not included in the estimated 38,000 Gt of DIC, and not included in the estimated 1000 Gt of DIC in sea surface, although it is accumulated inversely proportional to temperature into the largest CO2 sink by orders of magnitude. Richard E. Zeebe and Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow remind us, aqueous CO2 gas as well as solid precipitant calcium carbonate are produced, “at surface water conditions… counterintuitively.. during CaCO3 precipitation CO2 is liberated…by only ~0.03 µmol per µmol CaCO3 precipitated.” (Zeebe & Wolf-Gladrow) The famous white cliffs of Dover and Sussex, England, limestone caves around the world, the famous marble quarries of Italy are examples of enormous CaCO3 deposits.  Ultimately, when aqueous CO2 is oversaturated with respect to the Henry’s ratio, the Law of Mass Action requires the DIC and Ca2+ reactions to move to the right, towards products; thus excess CO2 is converted to one of the forms of calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate precipitates as solid particles which sink in the ocean water column, removing it from the surface layer. The calcium reaction is another source of CO2 in sea water while at the same time it removes bicarbonate from seawater.

Ca2+ + 2HCO3 -> CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O  (4)

CO2 dissolved in ocean surface is estimated to be 30 to 40 times more concentrated than in air, resulting from multiple reactions, yet still a minor component of sea surface water. But, these estimates of CO2 in ocean surface include ocean surface that is many meters deep.  In this report, we are concerned with the CO2 in the thin layer at the sea-air interface.  This report and project do not rely on estimates of CO2 concentration, nor on estimates of ocean layer thickness.  Demonstrating measurements of CO2 absorption and emission and their rates in comparison to human emissions is the purpose of this project.

Additional background on Henry’s Law and the carbonate chemistry is found in, for example, Cohen and Happer (2021), Stallinga and Khmelinskii (2018), Stallinga (2018), Harde (2019), Zeebe and Wolf-Gladrow, and Mazza (2020).    

Our theory is net global atmospheric CO2 concentration is in a dynamic equilibrium that is constantly re-balancing CO2 concentration between atmosphere and ocean surface, a re-balancing based primarily on the change in relative surface area of Earth and SST. Flux is not the same as flow or flow rate.  Flux is the mass flowing through a 2 dimensional area per unit of time (e.g. grams per square meter per second, or gigatonnes per square meter per hour, etc.). Flow rate is the volume of moving in a unit of time (e.g. liters per minute, gallons per hour, cubic meters per hour, cubic feet per second, etc.). Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface area at SST must be used to calculate CO2 flux. Average ocean temperature or average air temperatures or average SST result in incorrect Henry’s law equilibrium calculations. The Henry’s Law phase-state equilibrium reaction is diffusion of un-ionized CO2 gas through a surface area, that is, a two-phase equilibrium which is dynamically mediated by local SST and relative surface area at SST. At equilibrium, the resulting concentration gradient of the CO2 solute between the two sides of the exchange surface is the Henry’s Law dimensionless ratio. Equilibrium at a given surface temperature does not imply that the two fluxes are equal. Equilibrium at a given surface temperature implies that the ratio of net mass transfer in opposite vector directions through the given surface area is the dimensionless Henry’s Law coefficient for the given SST.

CO2 gas is always being emitted from ocean surface and always being absorbed into ocean surface. CO2 gas molecules never stop colliding with the ocean surface. Collisions result in increased kinetic energy in ocean surface followed by emission of CO2 gas from the surface because the partial pressure of CO2 gas in the surface is increased by the collisions. Many factors affect ocean surface temperature in addition to insolation; insolation is a very important topic but well beyond the scope of this paper.  In higher latitudes, millions of square kilometers of ocean surface are usually at ~17 degrees C or less, year round, and in this area of ocean surface net absorption of CO2 gas exceeds net emission, year round. Simultaneously, millions of square kilometers of tropical ocean are generally above ~25 degrees C year round, and in this area of ocean surface, net emission of CO2 gas exceeds CO2 absorption, year round.


The first phase of this study sought to determine if we could detect, in the “gold standard” data for global CO2 concentration, an inflection point in the slope of the daily CO2 concentration measurements before, during or after a single major climate event, the explosive volcanic eruption of Pinatubo on the island of Luzon in the Philippines in June 1991.  Proprietary software for digital signal processing was used to analyze the publicly available daily CO2 concentration data reported by MLO.  We defined an inflection point as a change in sign of the slope of CO2 concentration after the eruption of Pinatubo.  Hypothetically, if we are able to detect these inflection points with statistical confidence, then, to support our theory, we can use the same data set and software to produce evidence from many different climate, weather and environmental events and a global CO2 calibration curve. We would be able to measure changes in CO2 concentration which resulted from other volcanoes, El Ninos, La Ninas, storms, human CO2 emissions, and other events which reportedly affect net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration.  In a sense, we are iterating William Henry’s experiments for CO2 gas and water at the global scale with various climate and environmental conditions but using only measured global data.  Instead of unreliable computer climate models with too many estimates and theories, we would have data experiments using empirical data from the natural environment to correct the pervasive misunderstanding of CO2 which is curated in popular culture and education. 

The MLO data was selected because it is widely recognized and reported to be the gold standard reference measurement for net global average atmospheric CO2 gas concentration.  The lab is located about 11,000 feet above sea level on the northwest facing flank of Mauna Loa volcano on Hawaii island, the Big Island of Hawaii.  This data set was selected because it is accessible to the public and it has been diligently measured and curated since the 1970s. We selected their set of daily CO2 measurements. The data are reported in micromoles of CO2 gas per mole of dry air, which is equal to parts per million (ppm) CO2 in dry air.  We are grateful to the MLO scientists, authors and administration for making these data available to the public (See acknowledgments and Thoning et al (2021) reference for details and access to the data).

The software toolset for this initial phase of the study was designed and operated by Shahar Ben-Menahem, PhD (physics, Stanford) and Abraham Ishihara, PhD (Aeronautics & Astronautics, Stanford) through their company Modoc Analytics LLC under contract with EnergyCite ( and its sister company ClimateCite (

Using these software tools, if these data were found to be responsive to a geographically remote event such as Pinatubo, then potentially it would not be necessary to examine many different CO2 data sets nor to employ laboratories to validate our theory.  Instead of relying on theory, we would have measured, empirical evidence that CO2 concentration is controlled by nature. Our theory assumes sea surface temperature (SST) directly affects the ratio of atmospheric CO2 gas concentration versus CO2 gas concentration in sea surface, following Henry’s Law, while human CO2 has no effect on that ratio.  

Care must be taken with Henry’s Law since it can be expressed in many forms for different uses.  Here we use its dimensionless form.  The Henry’s Law coefficient kH = c(aqueous)/c(gas) where c is concentration in moles.  For example, 400 micromoles of CO2 per mole of air (which is 400 ppm CO2 concentration in air) is in equilibrium with 333 micromoles of CO2 per mole of seawater in sea surface at 298.15 K (or 25 degrees C) and a solution density of 997 kg/m3.  Dimensionless kH = 0.8317 (Sander, 2015). Concentration of CO2 in seawater is directly proportional to depth due to higher density (kg/m3) and inversely proportional to temperature. 

If this first phase data experiment worked, then the overall scientific complexity, effort, and expense of our project would be greatly reduced.  The most difficult data experiment was done first: could we detect the Pinatubo perturbation in the MLO data? 

We calculate a not-to-exceed amount of human-produced CO2 based on measured data rather than assuming estimates of human-produced CO2 based on estimates of fossil fuel production and cement production from spurious and dubious sources.  This is not to doubt the diligent and careful curation of the data by Oakridge National Laboratories, for example.  But the data they are handed comes from some sources which have been dubious over the years, for example, Soviet Union, Nigeria, Iran, Venezuela, and OPEC.   

This first phase of our project analyzed daily CO2 data from MLO to determine if the changes in CO2 due to the Pinatubo eruption were measurable in the data.  Is the data set responsive to remote events?  Could the software and skills of our scientists detect a reduction in the CO2 concentration and an inflection point in rate of change of concentration due to cooling of tropical ocean surface by the Pinatubo cloud belt.  Velocity and acceleration of net global average CO2 concentration were calculated based on measurements.    

The raw daily MLO data (as raw as available publicly) from the 1970s through 2020 was used as input for our sequence of algorithms. This “raw” time-series data set was only changed by us to fill in days with missing data.   

Figure 6.

Data for days for which no real CO2 data were available from MLO, marked as 999 in the MLO data file, but for which data were available for days both preceding and following the block of missing-data day(s), were interpolated accordingly.

Data for days (at the beginning of the recording period — early 1970s) for which no real data were available and no earlier data with valid data were available — were replaced by constant nominal values in the low 300s. This block of data is limited to the early 1970s and does not affect our Pinatubo results.

The following mathematical procedures (as summarized by boxes in the block diagram Figure 6.) are then applied to this “raw CO2 level data” time series wherein time is given in fractional Gregorian years and CO2 levels are given in ppm. 

A JTFA (“Joint Time Frequency Analysis”) is performed. Those skilled in the art of time-series digital signal processing (DSP) will recognize that this term refers to a class of methods, wherein a quantity-vs-time series is analyzed for its frequency content (such as PSD = Power Spectrum Density) as a function of time. While there are many JTFA techniques, the simplest one is performing a Fast Fourier Transform analysis (FFT) in a moving (“swept”) time window and computing the complex FFT coefficients as a function of both window start-time and in-window frequency index. This type of JTFA transformation, however, is not easily invertible.   

One of the simplest sub-classes of JTFA methods which is easily invertible, is the Gabor Transform.  The Ben-Menahem- Ishihara proprietary analysis method used in this investigation was based on combining the Gabor Transform and FFT.   

In the quantity-vs- time-frequency analyzes raw data result of our JTFA, we then remove the seasonal (1-year period) frequency-band peak via a notch filter, and also suppress the high-frequency band (“low-pass filtering”). Those skilled in the art of DSP or analog filtering in electrical engineering and other branches of physics-based engineering will readily recognize these terms and techniques.

After the notch- and low-pass filtering of the JTFA-produced data — represented by the relevant boxes in the Block Diagram — the filtered JTFA transform is then inverted. This computation yields the output (lower-left) box of the Block Diagram — the processed CO2 vs. time signal (and its time derivative).

Then with these data we introduce a proven and well-known math and physics calculation to compare natural CO2 absorption into the environment with human emissions.  


Figure 7.

The graph in Figure 7 above is plotted over the entire Mauna Loa recording epoch (circa 5 decades) with both the “raw” (as defined above) and processed (as defined above) CO2 levels, vs. time.  The graph appears very similar to the graphs typically produced by NOAA which appear frequently in media, education, politics and online. 

Figure 8.

The graph above in Figure 8 is processed as in the previous graph in Figure 7 and described in the method section above but simply zoomed in to cover only the Pinatubo decade: 1990-2000. The slope of the red line is visibly bending or flattening in July of 1991 into 1994, and then in 1995 the slope turns upward again.

Figure 9.

The data in the graph Figure 9 above is again processed as the previous two graphs but here zoomed in to the year of Pinatubo plus the year before and after Pinatubo.  The slope (grey line) is slightly bending or flattening after mid-year 1991 when the Pinatubo eruption occurred.  Velocity of CO2 concentration is slowing after mid-year 1991.  

No inflection point in the slope of CO2 concentration was found in the period following the Pinatubo eruption.  Slope declined slightly from prior trend but did not turn negative.  Large changes in acceleration were detected.  In this case, acceleration is the rate of change of slope, or the time derivative of CO2 ppm per year.      

Figure 10.

The graph in Figure 10 above plots the time derivative of the processed CO2 ppm/year. These data provide the maximum deceleration and date, and the maximum acceleration and date, and concentration in ppm per year at those dates in the post Pinatubo period. From these data points, we calculated CO2 flux and average mass of CO2 that we suggest was diffused through ocean surface.

Figure 11.

The above plot in Figure 11 is the time derivative of the processed CO2 ppm/year.  The estimated “would-be inflection” times bracket the detected “Pinatubo Event” as indicated by arrows and DD/MM/YY date markers.  The bracket dates are the points of fastest decline (deceleration) of slope and the fastest increase (acceleration) of slope.  On this plot, the mean baseline pre- and post-Pinatubo CO2 slope are indicated as horizontal lines; the full time period of the Mauna Loa data before or after the “would-be inflection” times were used to calculate the means, 1970s to 2020.  The points of minimum and maximum acceleration are used to determine respectively the end point of the pre-Pinatubo mean and the start point of the post-Pinatubo mean.  These two points allow assignment of the points where offset is calculated.  This offset (or over-recovery) is expected based on Le Chatelier’s Principle, basically stated, a perturbed trend will rapidly return to its equilibrium condition plus an offset amount or overcorrection. That is, the slope of the Henry’s phase-state equilibrium reaction for CO2 does not recover to the previous pre-Pinatubo slope, but instead, it recovers to the slope that would have existed if the disturbance to the slope had not occurred. This strongly suggests that the rate itself (i.e., the Henry’s partition coefficient) is the controlling variable.


Now we have a reliable method based on gold standard measurements of a single climate variable, i.e. net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration from MLO, which we can use to compare human-produced-CO2 emissions with changes in net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration. 

The trace gas CO2 is produced, modified, and absorbed through many and varied natural processes in the environment.  Documenting and quantifying all of these with accuracy and precision into a so-called carbon budget or energy balance is a quixotic task and approximate at best, yet that is what the public through their governments are paying for in elaborate projects, for example, annually documenting Earth’s carbon balance in over 100 pages by dozens of authors, e.g., Friedlingstein (2021), not to mention United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate conferences around the world and their thick document and public relations campaigns. It is a climate modeler’s dream project with no end date and expanding budgets.  These reports use too many estimates in too many models, not measurements of human-produced CO2.   

Meanwhile, net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration is routinely and diligently measured in micromoles per mole (which is equal to parts per million or ppm) of atmosphere at Mauna Loa and a few other locations.  It has been observed by many scientists that net global average atmospheric CO2 emissions vary with temperature.  In contrast, the common misunderstanding is that temperature varies with CO2 concentration and global temperature is increasing because human-produced CO2 is increasing.  While confirming that atmospheric CO2 gas contributes to Earth’s temperature, atmospheric physicist, Professor Murry Salby, PhD has educated us that CO2 varies coherently with temperature change, following temperature change, as shown in Figure 12. 

“An increase of TS [surface temperature] introduced by a radiative perturbation dF [dF is the direct radiative forcing] thus leads to an increased emission rate of CO2, and, hence, cumulatively in CO2.” …”Increased temperature increases net emission of CO2.  Decreased temperature has the reverse effect.  It is noteworthy that the positive sensitivity to temperature, drCO2/dT is not restricted to small perturbations. As is evident in Fig. 1.43, the dependence on temperature applies to rCO2 as large as 100%.  Also noteworthy is that the correspondence applies to changes of temperature that are clearly of different origin.  Following the eruption of Pinatubo, when SW [shortwave radiation emitted by the sun] heating decreased, rCO2 decreased by more than 50%. During the 1997-1998 El Nino, when SST increased, rCO2 increased by more than 100%. To maintain stability, there must exist a negative feedback in CO2, one that is sufficiently strong to bridle the enhancement of CO2 emission by positive feedback from temperature.  That negative feedback involves sinks of CO2 at Earth’s surface. (Salby, 2012).

Figure 12. Net emission rate of CO2, r˙CO2 = d/dt rCO2 (ppmv/yr), derived from the Mauna Loa record (Fig. 1.15), lowpass filtered to changes that occur on time scales longer than 2 years (solid). Superimposed is the satellite record of anomalous Global Mean Temperature (Fig. 1.39), lowpass filtered likewise and scaled by 0.225 (dashed). Trend in GMT over 1979–2009 (not included) is ∼0.125 K/decade.
(Salby, Physics of Atmosphere and Climate.p67.

As seen in the NOAA graph at the end of the introduction above, the time derivative of CO2 concentration follows quickly in months the time derivative of sea surface temperature (SST). 

The link between sea surface temperature and CO2 concentration also has been noted by government scientists.  For example: “At Mauna Loa the results implied that for the period 1970-1985, the season-to-season change would be about 0.2 ppm higher for a +1 degree C deviation in temperature of the eastern equatorial Pacific.  A slightly lower figured 0.15 ppm/degree C was found at the south pole for the full record length and about 0.35 ppm/degree C at Barrow (Alaska) for the full record.”…“For the cumulative dCO2 we found a 1 degree C deviation would produce about 0.4 ppm change at Mauna Loa, 0.3 ppm change at the south pole, and 0.8 ppm at Barrow, Alaska.” (Elliott & Angell, 1986).

And “…we found as have others, that warming of this region is usually followed by an above average increase in CO2 concentration.” …” At Mauna Loa this increase follows SST by about one season and at the south pole by two seasons.”  Unfortunately, these scientists usually do not pursue the linkage to its cause but instead, as these scientists did, the linkage or cause are dismissed. They concluded, “We take these results as further confirmation that the apparent effect of SST on the CO2 record comes less from changes in the equatorial eastern Pacific than from climate changes throughout the globe.”  (Elliott et al., 1990).

Anthropogenic CO2 is widely believed to be responsible for the trend of increasing net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration, and from that belief it is inferred global temperature is increasing, some claim dangerously.  Proponents of anthropogenic CO2-caused global warming (AGW) believe that reducing human CO2 emissions by stopping the use of fossil fuels will reduce net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration and thereby reduce global temperature.  The need to reduce global temperature is an unproven assumption as is the need to reduce human-produced CO2.  Those assumptions are based on computer models where only a few types of data are measurements.  Comprehensive climate models have not been able to be validated against real world measured conditions.  For example, “The inability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO2 creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO2 increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years. 60 references.” (Peng, 1987).

Climate scientists who support alleged human-caused global warming, for example Ben Santer and Michael Mann with others, authored a peer reviewed paper in the journal Nature Geoscience which acknowledges that their climate models are wrong, although their admission is hidden in technical jargon. They say in the first sentence of their paper’s abstract, “In the early twenty-first century, satellite-derived tropospheric warming trends were generally smaller than trends estimated from a large multi-model ensemble.” (Santer, 2017). In other words, the actual temperature trends were less than their modeled trends.  They continued, “Over most of the early twenty-first century, however, MODEL tropospheric warming is substantially larger than OBSERVED.” (Santer, 2017). (Capital letters are added for emphasis). In other words, their computer models substantially overestimate the global warming alleged to occur in the real world.

In contrast, the present study, based on measurements not models, simple in scope, analyzed a 2-year period where the rate of increase in slope of net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration slowed and then stopped momentarily.  The acceleration of CO2 concentration was temporarily halted by the effects of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption.  During those same months, CO2 emissions from human sources continued, CO2 emissions from natural sources continued (such as rotting soil and biosphere, etc.), the Pinatubo volcano itself added large amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere, and an El Nino event in 1991-1992 added CO2 to the atmosphere.  According to the results of this study, the second derivative (i.e., the acceleration) of CO2 concentration dropped precipitously in the 2 years following Pinatubo to its lowest point in the pre-Pinatubo Mauna Loa record, despite the CO2 additions by humans, natural sources, a volcano and an El Nino.  Nature rapidly absorbed the added CO2 and then more rapidly accelerated again to reset its CO2 concentration to trend.   

The Law of Mass Action states that the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the concentrations of the reactants, applicable under any circumstances.  In this case, the chemical reaction is the Henry’s Law phase-state equilibrium reaction of CO2 occurring in millions of square kilometers of tropical seawater surface cooled by the effects of the Pinatubo eruption.  

To give the amounts of CO2 perspective, Earth’s “…forests provide a “carbon sink” that absorbs a net 7.6 billion metric tonnes of CO2 per year…” (World Resources Institute, 2021). Cooler surface in the two years following Pinatubo absorbed net 2778 billion metric tons of CO2, and then in the next two years emitted that amount plus an additional increment.

The rate of change of the slope of net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration in this analysis dropped momentarily below zero. CO2 concentration decelerated rapidly and briefly stopped growing. A large, global scale, decrease in CO2 emission is consistent with an oceanic source of CO2 and the rapid rate of change of slope is consistent with estimates of the size of absorption and emission fluxes of CO2 gas from ocean and no where else.  By elimination, there is no other known, logical or physically possible sink for such a large amount of CO2 to be absorbed so rapidly other than ocean surface.  The Henry’s global CO2 dynamic equilibrium ratio was abruptly perturbed by cooling SST.  CO2 emissions decreased precipitously after millions of square kilometers of tropical ocean surface cooled. Millions of square kilometers of ocean and land surface in higher latitudes also cooled. For a period of about 2 years, the rate of CO2 absorptions into the environment greatly exceeded the rate of CO2 emissions from all sources. The rate of change of CO2 concentration (i.e., the slope of CO2 concentration) had been on average 1.4 ppm per year since mid-1970s.  For a period of about 2 years, that slope decelerated and briefly reached below zero even though human emissions were continuing as usual, and the Pinatubo eruption had added large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, and Earth’s biosphere was continuing to emit CO2 as usual, and a El Nino event was adding CO2 to the air.    

Figure 13.

The decrease in CO2 slope after 1991 followed by its recovery are clearly seen in the graph above.  This NOAA/Scripps graph is CO2 slope versus time, i.e. ppm per year or velocity of net global average CO2 atmospheric concentration.  1 ppm is 7.76 Gt of CO2.    

Examining closely the NOAA/Scripps graph immediately above.  A slight decrease or flattening is visible after 1991.  This graph is CO2 concentration versus time.   

In addition to the CO2 added to the atmosphere by Pinatubo, and the continuing CO2 emissions by humans from all sources, and the continuing natural emissions of CO2 by the biosphere, there was an El Nino event in 1991-1992. El Nino events add large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere.  “The equatorial Pacific is the largest oceanic source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and has been proposed to be a major site of organic carbon export to the deep sea… The data establish El Nino events as the main source of interannual variability.” (Murray, 1994). The historical series of El Nino and La Nina perturbations are beyond the scope of this document, but we hope these major CO2 and temperature perturbations can be examined in the next phases of this study.   

During the period 1990 to 1995, as mentioned, there were major additions of CO2 to the atmosphere. We did not attempt to disentangle and quantify these additions. Yet our analysis revealed in MLO data a decrease in the slope of CO2 concentration and a sharp temporary deceleration in CO2 concentration. This begs the question: where did all of that CO2 go? After about 2 years of deceleration, and a temporary halt in CO2 growth concurrent with ongoing human and large unusual but natural CO2 additions, this rapid deceleration and halt was followed by an even more acceleration and recovery beyond the average rate of change of CO2 concentration for the pre-Pinatubo decades.

Where did that CO2 go?  Where did that recovery CO2 come from?  It was and is in the ocean.  And it was there and is there in enormous quantity, as will be illustrated next. 

We studied the period of the Pinatubo perturbation.  A natural perturbation to the diligently measured approximate 20-year trend of CO2 concentration occurred.  This Pinatubo perturbation period is an example, in both size and rates, of the capacity of the natural environment to emit and absorb CO2.  Human-CO2 emissions are also a perturbation to the same net global average CO2 concentration trend, but tiny by comparison to Pinatubo’s perturbation.   

The CO2 absorbed was over two orders of magnitude larger (over 100 times larger) than the perturbation due to human CO2 emissions in the same period, as we will now show.  The rate of change (also known as slope, or velocity) of net global average CO2 concentration averaged 1.463 ppm per year prior to Pinatubo.  After Pinatubo, the rate of change of concentration slowed. But the rate of change of the rate of change of CO2 concentration declined very sharply. In other words, CO2 slope decelerated to zero rate of change of slope. The growth of CO2 concentration stopped and declined momentarily. By analogy, you did only ease off the gas pedal on the car after previously you were previously pushing down on the gas, accelerating to increase velocity, you took your foot off the gas and stepped down hard on the brake. Then, after reaching zero, for the next 2 years Earth accelerated rapidly, more rapidly than it had decelerated, to an average rate of change of concentration (i.e., average slope for the post Pinatubo period from 1995 to 2020) of 2.087 ppm per year. This remarkable recovery to trend with an offset above previous trend, that is an over recovery, is expected from Le Chatelier’s principle. The new slope after recovery is approximately a slope that would have been if the disturbance to trend had not occurred. This offset suggests that the CO2 concentration has actual force and momentum, not only the statistical calculation of these physical concepts. This is pursued in the following analysis.

Rather than estimate natural and human emissions based on computer modeling, carbon budgets, proxy data from pre-industrial times, and dubious fossil fuel data sources, we will only compare CO2 measured diligently by the Mauna Loa laboratory.   

On June 15, 1991, net global average CO2 atmospheric concentration (Mauna Loa data) was 358 ppm. 

One ppm equals 7.76 gigatons (Gt) of CO2.

358 ppm times 7.76 = 2778 Gt CO2.

(1 ppm CO2 = 2.12 Gt carbon. And 2.12 Gt carbon times 3.66 tonnes CO2 per tonne carbon = 7.7592 Gt CO2. Then 7.76 Gt CO2 times 358 ppm CO2 = 2778 Gt CO2.)

The specific impulse calculation usually denoted J can be used to compare chemical forces in the environment. J is commonly used in chemistry, chemical engineering and health sciences to compare fluxes, that is, the mass of molecules moving in a vector direction through a surface area in a unit of time. For example, the directional flux of oxygen or anesthetic gas into lung tissue when inhaling.

Imagine a fully loaded 747 airplane with a mass of 2778 Gt on the runway ready to depart.  How did the jet engine and aircraft designers and later the pilots know that the engines could produce enough force to accelerate the airplane to sufficient velocity to become airborne before the end of the runway?  This calculation is the impulse calculation.  It gives us a reliable, well known and trusted calculation to compare human-produced CO2 with natural CO2.  If our 747 hits a bump in the runway and decelerates rapidly, then pilots or their computer must decide instantly: Can this plane take off before reaching the end of the runway? Does our 747 have enough force to accelerate to take-off velocity?  

The United Nations, leaders of over 100 nations through decades of government administrations in those nations, politicians and bureaucrats, judges, leaders of major industries, universities, mainstream media, the Pope in Rome, scientists and engineers who should know better, have been working vigorously for at least 40 years to convince you that the 747 must stop, turn around and go back to the gate. They have been telling us, attempting to scare us and scaring children worldwide, with practically non-stop, very expensive propaganda using our money, government policies and laws that the 747 will crash, that it does not have enough power to take off, that the 747 named Earth is in an existential crisis, life and death crisis, some alarmist claim the planet is beyond the point of no-return. They blame the trace gas CO2 generated as a by-product of humans using fossil fuels.

We will now use the same calculation that pilots used thousands of times everyday to make life and death decisions, such as: can our airplane loaded with passengers, crew, baggage and fuel take off in time before reaching the end of the runway. This is known as the specific impulse calculation. The same physics and math used in the specific impulse calculation demonstrates that humans can not be responsible for global warming.  

This study provides the values measured by MLO for the critical variables in the specific impulse calculations for CO2. The important variables are the same for both airplane and for CO2 concentration. We have the mass of the airplane and the (measured, not estimated) mass of CO2 in the air. And, we have the speed or velocity (or its rate of change of position) of the airplane, and we have the rate of change of CO2 concentration in the air (aka the speed or velocity of the CO2 concentration). And, we have the acceleration of the airplane (aka the rate of change of speed or velocity). And, we have the acceleration of the concentration of CO2 in air (aka the rate of change of the velocity of CO2 concentration). We will use these variables for the mass, velocity and acceleration of CO2 concentration in atmosphere during the time period following the Pinatubo eruption to calculate the specific impulse of Earth’s environment. Does Earth’s environment have enough force to absorb human-produced CO2 ? The mass of CO2 is calculated from the MLO ppm concentration on the day of the Pinatubo main eruption.   

m = mass of net global average CO2 concentration in air = 2778 Gt CO2 in air, which is equal to 358 ppm CO2 in air (measured by MLO June 15, 1991.) That is 2778 billion metric tons of CO2.

dt is change in time = 2 years following Pinatubo eruption

a = acceleration

a = dv/dt   Acceleration a is the change in velocity divided by the change in time

a = 1.463 ppm/yr divided by 2 years = 0.73 ppm per year per year.

F is force.  F = m times a 

F = 2778 Gt CO2 times 0.73 ppm/yr/yr = 2027.94 Newtons 

A Newton is the unit of force in the International System of units (SI).  It is represented by the symbol N. Sir Isaac Newton devised the three Laws of Motion.  The impulse-momentum theorem is logically equivalent to Newton’s second law of motion.  Impulse is the measure of force applied over time. Impulse is denominated by the symbol J.  J is always directional one-way (i.e. a vector).  The rate of change of molar concentrations and mass are compared in this illustration. There is no distance term, the mass is not moving over a distance in a unit of time as in the analogies of a car, airplane or rocket. But, our final comparison is a quotient, so the units drop out leaving a dimensionless ratio.

The physics term momentum M is perhaps more well known than specific impulse due to its use in sports. And we have the data to calculate M. M = force times velocity. Force is the mass of CO2. Velocity is the slope of CO2 concentration. M = F * v. Momentum is useful for atmospheric comparisons. But M does not tell us if the 747 can reach sufficient velocity to take off in a given time or runway. Similarly, M does not tell us if human CO2 is increasing faster than the environment can remove it. For this comparison, we need specific impulse.

J = F times dt.   Impulse J = force times change in time

J = 2028 Newtons * 2 years

J =  4056  

4056 is the specific impulse of total CO2 in the atmosphere on the day before the Pinatubo eruption.

For comparison, let’s assume human CO2 was equal to 100% of the CO2 that was added to the atmosphere between 1990 and 1991, the year preceding the Pinatubo eruption.  Calculating from MLO data, the measured average rate of change (or velocity) of net global atmospheric CO2 concentration for year 1990 to 1991 was 1.463 ppm or about 1.5 ppm. How much CO2 is that?  Thus 1.5 ppm times 7.76 Gt/ppm = 11.64 Gt of CO2. 11.64 Gt is the total change in CO2 concentration in the year 1990 to 1991; this amount exceeds maximum possible human emission in that year because it includes net CO2 emissions from all sources and sinks of CO2, not only human emission, all CO2 emitted from ocean, land, biosphere. But for the purpose of our comparison here, we will attribute 100% of that increase in CO2 to humans.  Next, let’s also assume that 100% of the average velocity of human CO2 emission continued during the 2 year period following the eruption even though the rate of total CO2 was declining in that period. Our scientists calculated that average velocity in the pre-Pinatubo dataset period from 1970s to 1991 was 1.463 ppm/year.  Divide 1.463 by 2 years = 0.73.  

Repeating the specific impulse J calculation for maximum possible “human” CO2:

F = mass times acceleration

J = F times dt.   Impulse J = force times change in time

11.64 Gt of “human” CO2 times 0.73 ppm/year/year acceleration times 2 years = an impulse J of 16.99.

J is 17, the maximum possible specific impulse due to “human”-produced CO2 that was added to the atmosphere during the 2-year post-Pinatubo deceleration period.  It is the maximum impulse because we assume (for the purpose of this comparison only) that all of the CO2 increase from all sources since the 1970s is due to humans. 

The result of this comparison is exculpatory evidence.  We have J = 4056 for natural CO2 removal in 2 years versus J = 17 for maximum possible “humans” addition of CO2. The units drop out of the quotient leaving a dimensionless ratio 4056 / 17  = 239.

The environment, mostly ocean surface (since ocean is about 71% of Earth’s surface), demonstrated rapid CO2 absorbance capacity which is 239 times larger than maximum possible amount of net human emissions.  We conclude that net human emissions are trivially minor, negligible, and absorbed and re-emitted along with the 239 times larger change in natural CO2.  

Recall that deceleration of net global average CO2 concentration dropped to near zero ppm/yr/yr.  CO2 concentration, both natural and human, is cumulative over time.  Impulse is cumulative over time.  Thus, the impulse is suitable and logical for this comparative analysis.  Integration of cumulative CO2 concentrations would also be a correct method for comparison, but the math is less well known.  Airliners would not be taking off without the impulse calculation.  Rockets would not reach orbit. When we attribute 100% of the changes in CO2 concentration to humans, the impulse due to “humans” is negligible, not enough to stop CO2’s rapid deceleration.  The human-produced-CO2 climate change story does not fly. 


The environment demonstrated a measured impulse to absorb 239 times the human-produced CO2 impulse when very conservatively calculated.  Simply said, the natural environment is controlling CO2 concentration. Human CO2 emissions are not causing the increase in atmospheric CO2.  The amount of human CO2 emissions is negligible, less than a rounding error, in Earth’s specific impulse to absorb and emit CO2 perturbations. And we do not yet know how large is Earth’s overall capacity; so far we have only calculated based on MLO measurements for the Pinatubo event. Henry’s Law, the Law of Mass Action and le Chatelier’s principle strongly suggest that net global average CO2 concentration such as measured by MLO is controlled primarily by sea surface temperatures.  These temperatures are controlled by various natural forces.  Since an amount greatly exceeding all possible human CO2 emissions was absorbed rapidly by the environment, then no net warming or net cooling can be attributed to human CO2 emissions.  Our result suggests human CO2 emissions are a minor perturbation which is rapidly returned to trend.       

Scientist P. Stallinga, PhD concluded, “The correlation between temperature and [CO2] is readily explained by another phenomenon, called Henry’s Law: The capacity of liquids to hold gases in solution is depending on temperature. When oceans heat up, the capacity decreases and the oceans thus release CO2 (and other gases) into the atmosphere. When we quantitatively analyze this phenomenon, we see that it perfectly fits the observations, without the need of any feedback [1]. We thus now have an alternative hypothesis for the explanation of the observations presented by Al Gore. The greenhouse effect can be as good as rejected and Henry’s Law stays firmly standing. We concluded that the effect of anthropogenic CO2 on the climate is negligible and the effect of the ocean temperature on atmospheric [CO2] is exactly, both sign and magnitude, equal to that as expected on basis of Henry’s Law.” (Stallinga, 2018, Stallinga, 2020).

Where did the CO2 go after Pinatubo?  It was absorbed into the oceans primarily, and less into soils and the biosphere.  Our results strongly support the theory that the Henry’s Law dynamic equilibrium was adjusted downward due to the lower sea surface temperature, resulting in much less CO2 being emitted from the cooled tropical ocean, soils and biosphere; meanwhile, normally colder water in higher latitudes was even colder due to the Pinatubo effects; net absorption increased in these higher latitudes.  Thus the CO2 slope declined and acceleration rapidly declined post-Pinatubo.  Then, about 2 years after Pinatubo, when the cloud belt had partially dissipated and insolation of tropical oceans increased, then the deceleration of net global average atmospheric CO2 concentration reversed sign and even more rapidly recovered. Average slope following the recovery was a step higher than the pre-Pinatubo average. Professor Murry Salby provides calculations and graphs showing that the observed long-term slope of CO2 concentration is explained by a series of offsets such as Pinatubo and El Ninos. “There is no evidence of a systematic trend in temperature.” [referring to the actual mean global University of Alabama Huntsville’s satellite records for global anomalous temperature.] (Salby, 2018, beginning about 16:30 time mark in the video).

Concerning the Pinatubo perturbation, Stallinga and Khmelinskii (2018) write, “In total, the natural contribution is negative 50% of the anthropogenic emissions (i.e., a sink; Sabine, C.L. et al. estimate 48% ( Sabine, C.L. et al., 2014), plus fluctuations, with these fluctuations being of the same order of magnitude as the anthropogenic emissions… We have thus direct proof of Henry’s Law that predicts such effects of temperature on the carbon-dioxide content in the atmosphere. Oceans undeniably outgas and absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and they govern the dynamics, the correlation of [CO2] with temperature.” (Stallinga & Khmelinskii, 2018).   In other words, human emissions are absorbed by nature. 

Kauppinen and Malmi (2019) explain, “Low cloud cover controls practically the global temperature.” “The IPCC climate sensitivity is about one order of magnitude too high, because a strong negative feedback of the clouds is missing in climate models. If we pay attention to the fact that only a small part of the increased CO2 concentration is anthropogenic, we have to recognize that the anthropogenic climate change does not exist in practice. The major part of the extra CO2 is emitted from oceans [6], according to Henry‘s law. The low clouds practically control the global average temperature. During the last hundred years the temperature is increased about 0.1°C because of CO2. The human contribution was about 0.01°C.” (Kauppinen & Malmi, 2019).

Since the Pinatubo cloud belt around Earth’s equator mostly obfuscated insolation of normally warm tropical ocean surface, and since CO2 gas solubility in sea surface is inversely proportion to SST, we confidently deduce that the measured, rapid deceleration of CO2 concentration was caused by cooling of millions of square kilometers of tropical ocean surface.  Our result and the novel use of the standard specific impulse calculation reveal a MLO-measured net CO2 gas absorption impulse more than 230 times larger than the MLO-measured maximum possible net human emission impulse during the same time period.  We expect that continuing this study into its next phases will yield a matrix of supporting evidence and, possibly, a calibration curve for human-CO2 emissions, based on measurements rather than estimates, so that the pernicious claims of global climate change due to human-produced CO2 can be summarily dismissed.  The argument that human-CO2 emission is causing global climate change is shown to have no scientific merit. 

Credits and Acknowledgements

Thoning et al (2021). K.W. Thoning, A.M. Crotwell, and J.W. Mund (2021), Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from continuous measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Barrow, Alaska, American Samoa and South Pole. 1973-2020, Version 2021-08-09 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Global Monitoring Laboratory (GML), Boulder, Colorado, USA

FTP path:

The software toolset for this initial phase of the study was designed and operated by Shahar Ben-Menahem, PhD (physics, Stanford) and Abraham Ishihara, PhD (Aeronautics & Astronautics, Stanford) through their company Modoc Analytics LLC. 

This study, referred to by the scientific team, management, and ClimateCite Corporation as the “Pinatubo Study – phase I”, was entirely funded by Tomer Tamarkin, Carmichael, CA with the generous help and support of Pat Boone, Beverly Hills, CA.  No financial solicitations were made to any other corporations, companies, or individuals, nor funds received.  Intellectual work product and copyright, 2022, ClimateCite Corp.

Bud Bromley has no conflicts of interests which might affect the direction of this study or authoring this report. This report is also available here:  


An extensive glossary of names, terms, & scientific principles used in this paper may be found online at:


Cohen, R., & Happer, W., (2021, November 21). Fundamentals of Ocean pH. CO2

Elliott, W.P., & Angell, J.K., (1987). On the relation between atmospheric C02 and equatorial sea-surface temperature. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 39B, 171-183.

Elliott, W.P., Angell, J.K., & Thoning, K.W. (1990). Relation of atmospheric CO2 to tropical sea and air
temperatures and precipitation. Tellus 43B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 43:2, 144-155, :

Friedlingstein, P., Jones, M. W., O’Sullivan, M., Andrew, R. M., Bakker, D. C. E., Hauck, J., Le Quéré, C., Peters, G. P., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Sitch, S., Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Jackson, R. B., Alin, S. R., Anthoni, P., Bates, N. R., Becker, M., & Bellouin, N., (2021) Global Carbon Budget 2021, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss. [preprint],

Harde, H. (2019).  What Humans Contribute to Atmospheric CO2: Comparison of Carbon Cycle Models with Observations. Earth Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2019, pp. 139-158. 10.11648/

Henry, W. (1803). Experiments on the quantity of gases absorbed by water, at different temperatures, and under different pressures. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 93: 29–274.

Hoppe, K. (1992).  Mt. Pinatubo’s cloud shades global climate. Science News. July 18, 1992.’s+cloud+shades+global+climate.-a012467057

Kauppinen, J., & Malmi, P. (2019). No experimental evidence for the significant anthropogenic climate change.  Cornell University. arXiv:1907.00165v1 [physics.gen-ph] 29 Jun 2019.

Mauna Loa Observatory, 2005. USGov-Doc.

Mazza, D. (accessed 2022, April 15)

Mazza, D. (2020). Algorithms in Ocean Chemistry. ISBN | 978-88-31688-62-8.

Murray J.W., Barber R.T., Roman, M.R., Bacon, M.P., & Feely, R.A. (1994) Physical and biological controls on carbon cycling in the equatorial pacific. Science. 1994 October 7;266(5182):58-65.

Onuki, Akira (2009). Henry’s Law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures. J. Chem. Phys. 130, 124703.

Peng, T-H, Post, W. M., DeAngelis, D. L., Dale, V. H., & Farrell, M. P. (1987) Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle: The key uncertainties. United States.

Sabine, C.L., Feely, R.A., Gruber, N., Key, R.M., Lee, K., Bullister, J.L., Wanninkhof, R., Wong, C.S., Wallace, D.W.R., Tilbrook, B., Millero, F.J., Peng T-H, Kozyr, A., Ono, T., & Rios, A.F. (2004) The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305, 367.

Salby, M.L. (2012). Physics of the Atmosphere and Climate. 2nd Edition. ISBN: 9780521767187.  and

Salby, M.L., & Helmut-Schmidt-University Hamburg. (2018, October 10). What is Really Behind the Increase of Atmospheric CO2 ? [Video]. YouTube.

Sander, R. (2015). Compilation of Henry’s law constants (version 4.0) for water as solvent. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4399–4981, 2015. and

Santer, B.D., Fyfe, J.C., Pallotta, G., Flato, G.M., Meehl, G.A., England, M.H., Hawkins, E., Mann, M.E., Painter, J.F., Bonfils, C., Cvijanovic, I., Mears, C., Wentz, F.J., Po-Chedley, S., Fu, Q., & Zou, C-Z. 2017. Causes of differences in model and satellite tropospheric warming rates. Nature Geoscience. 19 June 2017.

Stallinga, P. (2018). Carbon dioxide and ocean acidification. European Scientific Journal June 2018 edition Vol.14, No.18.

Stallinga, P. (2018). Signal analysis of the climate: correlation, delay and feedback. Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing, 6, 30-45.

Stallinga, P. (2020). Comprehensive analytical study of the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 10, 40-80.

Stallinga, P., & Khmelinskii, I. (2018). Analysis of temporal signals of climate, Natural ScienceVol.10 No.10, 2018.

Stenchikov, G., Ukhov, A., Osipov, S., Ahmadov, R., Grell, G., Cady-Pereira, K., Mlawer, Mlawer, E., & Iacono, M. (2021).  How does a Pinatubo-size volcanic cloud reach the middle stratosphere? JGR Atmospheres. 14 May 2021.

Stumm, W., & Morgan, J.J. (1996).  Aquatic Chemistry: chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters.  James J. Wiley Interscience.192.

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The Engineering Toolbox. (accessed 2022, April 15) The Solubility of Gases in Water vs Temperature. The Engineering Toolbox.

Thoning, K.W., Crotwell, A.M., & Mund, J.W. (2021). Atmospheric carbon dioxide dry air mole fractions from continuous measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Barrow, Alaska, American Samoa and South Pole. 1973-2020, Version 2021-08-09. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Global Monitoring Laboratory (GML), Boulder, Colorado, USA Data Set Name: co2_mlo_surface-insitu_1_ccgg_DailyData. Description: Atmospheric carbon dioxide dry air mole fractions from quasi-continuous measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

Harris, N., & Gibbs, D. (2021, January 21). Forests absorb twice as much carbon as they emit each year.  World Resources Institute.

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#ClimateChange #IPCC #GlobalWarming #ClimateCrisis #Sustainability #NetZero #EPA #EndangermentFinding #CO2 #ClimatePolicy #EnergyPolicy #FossilFuel #Henry’sLaw

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“Unvaccinated people are much more likely to develop broad antibody immunity after Covid infections than people who have received mRNA shots.”

Here is Alex Berenson’s analysis and summary of the technical article at the link above:

Alex Berenson on Substack

URGENT: The most powerful evidence yet that mRNA vaccines hurt long-term immunity to Covid after infection

A bombshell study – from the National Institutes of Health and Moderna, no less – should end debate.

“Unvaccinated people are much more likely to develop broad antibody immunity after Covid infections than people who have received mRNA shots, a new study shows.

The gap remains large whether people had mild, moderate, or severe Covid infections, the study showed – undercutting a crucial argument that vaccine advocates have made to defend the shots.

The research draws on data from Moderna’s 30,000-person clinical trial for its mRNA shots. It may help explain why so many Americans now suffer multiple Covid infections, sometimes within months.

Researchers already knew that many vaccinated people do not gain antibodies to the entire coronavirus after they are infected with Covid.

Unvaccinated people nearly always gain antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein, which covers the virus’s core of RNA, as well as its spike protein, which allows the virus to attack our cells. Vaccinated people often lack those anti-nucleocapsid antibodies and only have spike protein antibodies.” …

Continued here: Alex Berenson on Substack.

#corona #Covid19 #SARS #healthcare #mRNA #vaccine #immunity #Covid #antibody

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The CO2 tempest in a teapot scandal

CO2 “crisis” is a “tempest in a teapot” or a “storm in a teacup.”

“Excitabat fluctus in simpulo” ~ Cicero, in De Legibus, circa 52 BC

Consider a pot of boiling water.  If more water is added to the pot, the boiling point of the water does not change.  The time required to boil the water changes and/or the amount of heat required to boil the water changes, but the boiling point does not change.  The boiling point does change under certain other conditions, for example if salt or other substances are added to the water or when boiling water at high altitudes or reduced air pressure.  The boiling point of water (212 degrees F or 100 degrees C) at standard pressure (1 atmosphere) and temperature (25 degrees C) (STP) is an intensive property of matter.   Another example of an intensive property of matter is molecular weight.  Addition or subtraction of an amount of material does not change its molecular weight.

Another example of an intensive property of matter is the solubility of a gas in a liquid.  Gas solubility in a liquid is the ratio of the concentration of a gas versus concentration of that same gas in the liquid where the gas and liquid are in contact and free exchange of molecules at the surface.  That ratio does not change when more of the specific gas is added to the air nor when that gas is subtracted from the air.  The solubility ratio is fixed for a given temperature and combination of gas and liquid, except under certain other conditions as described below.  

The solubility ratio of a gas in contact with a liquid is defined in Henry’s Law, which is described for many different gas – liquid combinations and conditions in the experiments of William Henry in the 1800’s.  Like boiling point, certain conditions apply.

At a specified temperature, in a two-phase system of a gas phase in contact with a liquid phase, and where the gas is a minor component, and when only the gas which has not reacted with the liquid is considered, the Henry’s coefficient is expressed as:  

kH = c(CO2 aqueous) divided by c(CO2 gas)

  • where c(CO2 aqueous) is the concentration in moles of aqueous CO2 gas per mole of water, and
  • c(CO2 gas) is the concentration in moles of CO2 gas in atmosphere per mole of atmosphere.

A mole is 6.022 X 1023 units of anything.  For CO2 concentration, the units are molecules of CO2.  A mole of CO2 is 6.022 X 1023 molecules of CO2 whether those CO2 molecules are in air, water, ocean or beer.  It is known as the Avogadro’s number.  That is 6022 followed by 20 zeros.

To determine the concentration of a gas in equilibrium with a liquid at a specific temperature, the kH ratio for that gas-liquid combination is multiplied by the specified temperature in Kelvin at the gas-liquid exchange surface.  At kH equilibrium for a specified temperature, the number of molecules emitted from the liquid surface equals the number of molecules absorbed in the liquid surface.  Absorption and emission are continuous.  CO2 gas molecules in air continuously collide with ocean surface, and in response CO2 molecules will be emitted into air, thus keeping the kH ratio constant at that temperature. 

The concentration of CO2 in water is inversely proportional to the temperature at the air-water exchange surface, which is primarily the surface of the ocean.  Increasing or decreasing the area of ocean surface at a specific temperature changes the rate of net emission or net absorption. Agitation of surface by waves, currents, storms can increase the rate of change by 10 to 100 times. Colder water absorbs and retains more CO2 gas than warmer water.  We all know this because our soda drink or beer retains its pleasant bubbles when it is kept cold. If your soda pop becomes warm, the fizz is gone. If your soda pop is shaken, the fizz is gone.  

Ocean surface is greater than 70% of Earth’s surface.  Since ocean surface temperatures are changing for many different reasons, CO2 gas concentration in air and ocean surface are continuously changing. Henry’s Law is a dynamic equilibrium.

We find the Henry’s Law coefficient kH in reference books and online for many combinations of gases and liquids, under various temperatures and also under the few additional conditions that apply.  For example, in local conditions, salinity of the liquid becomes a variable.  Salinity includes all the dissolved and ionized minerals in the liquid, for example phosphates, not only sodium chloride salt.  Also the alkalinity or pH of the liquid, and the partial of pressure of the gas in the air are important in local conditions.  Biological activity in local waters is important; some activity such as rotting adds CO2 and reduces pH, while other activity such as photosynthesis by planktons removes CO2. These conditions result in local changes in CO2 concentration and local adjustment to the Henry’s ratio. Conditions other than temperature generally offset each other and cancel in global averages.

The kH is different for each gas and liquid combination and each combination varies with temperature of the surface.  For example, Henry’s law also applies to oxygen O2 and its solubility in ocean and in your blood and in the water in and around tissues in your lungs and gills of fish.   

One implication of Henry’s Law is that human additions or subtractions of CO2 have no medium or long term effect on global CO2 concentration and thus no effect on global warming.  Total CO2 in the atmosphere is around 400 molecules of CO2 per 1,000,000 molecules of air.  As explained in this paper, and contrary to what most people have been taught, human CO2 cannot cause increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.  Human CO2 is absorbed and emitted into air and ocean continuously along with all other CO2.  By analogy, humans adding CO2 to the air by using fossil fuels is like adding more water to the teapot.  The boiling point of the water does not change.  The ratio of CO2 in the air versus CO2 in the water does not change by adding more CO2.  Adding or subtracting CO2 changes the time required to re-establish equilibrium. Any CO2 amount absorbed into ocean in excess of the Henry’s ratio is ionized and combines with water to become either carbonic acid or bicarbonate, thus removing the excess CO2 from the Henry’s Law equilibrium. And vice versa. When ocean surface is warmed, the carbonic acid and bicarbonate reactions reverse and aqueous CO2 gas is produced in the water surface, increasing aqueous CO2 gas in the Henry’s ratio, then CO2 gas is emitted to air until the Henry’s Law ratio for that temperature is achieved. This is a continuous dynamic equilibrium.

El Nino events are ocean currents that periodically bring cold water from deep ocean that is very dense with CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon. This water warms and expands as it rises to the surface. This can result in aqueous CO2 in ocean surface in excess of the Henry’s ratio and large emission of CO2 into the atmosphere where these El Nino’s reach the surface.

Fortunately, more CO2 is better for the environment, plants, animals, and humans.  But humans cannot claim any responsibility for these benefits nor are humans responsible for any alleged negative consequences of higher or lower CO2 concentration.   Changes in CO2 concentration in air are caused by the many different conditions that affect ocean surface temperature and land surface temperature such as clouds, humidity, seasons, solar and planetary cycles, etc.  Fortunately for all life, CO2 concentration in air is not affected by humans.  Atmospheric CO2 concentration today is the same as it would be if humans never existed.  The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, argon and the other gases are beyond our mortal human pay grade. 

Water surface, primarily ocean surface, absorbs any additional atmospheric CO2 which exceeds the Henry’s partition ratio, returning the equilibrium partition ratio for a specific temperature of the air-water interchange surface. Thus, the rate of change of CO2 concentration (i.e., its velocity or time derivative) is a function of the area of the air-water interchange surface at the specific temperature; this is CO2 flux, which is the directional vector quantity of units of mass moving through an amount of surface area per unit of time.  Millions of square kilometers of tropical ocean surface is above 25 degrees C on average year round, day and night.  That ocean surface on average will be emitting CO2 into air.  Offsetting that is millions of square kilometers of ocean surface in northern and southern temperate and arctic zones which are below 25 degrees C.  This colder ocean surface on average will be absorbing CO2 gas.  In both cold water and warm water both emission and absorption are continuous at equilibrium.  It is a dynamic equilibrium mediated by temperature at the air-ocean exchange interface, i.e., mostly ocean surface.   Changes in CO2 concentration closely follow (within months) changes in sea surface temperature (SST).

Voters everywhere should be challenging their politicians, bureaucrats, teachers and media about their continuing misrepresentation of facts and science and the attempt to extract from us, according to the global consulting company McKinsey, more than $9 trillion per year allegedly to reduce human CO2 emissions.  Human CO2 emissions can be reduced, but that will not change or reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration in air and will not change or reduce any global warming alleged to be occurring. The climate change agenda is a fool’s errand and they are attempting to make fools of the entire human population by alleging a non-existent crisis, banning truth tellers, needlessly scaring adults and children and in the process enriching themselves and their cronies.

In the U.S., the EPA’s ruling known as a Final Endangerment Finding must be repealed.  In this ruling, EPA’s administrator defined carbon dioxide as an endangerment to U.S. citizens.  The ruling has never been voted on by Congress.  It is not a law.  Two EPA administrators have refused to turn over to Congress the science or other basis by which the ruling was made.  It was reported that EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson was held in contempt of Congress and resigned. No court has ruled or even heard a case on the merits or demerits of the science of EPA’s ruling.  But in the U.S. alone, this EPA Final Endangerment Finding is costing taxpayers many millions of dollars per year in increased debt at all levels of government and increasing the cost of all forms of energy. Increasing energy cost increases the price of almost everything.    

In all countries, wherever you live, your government, most media, most educators, most entertainers, and many companies especially bankers, along with the United Nations, the European Union, the World Health Organization, the World Economic Forum are attempting to scare you so that they can control you, including taking your money, your private property, your freedom of speech and other rights.  If you do nothing, they will succeed.  This tempest has nothing to do with the environment or climate.

Wherever you are, vote against politicians who support the so-called climate change agenda.  Elect politicians who will stop bureaucrats, government and corporations from robbing you.  This taxation without representation must stop.  It is a global fraud and we must elect politicians who will prosecute the fraudsters. Stop schools from miseducating and scaring children and young people with the global warming dogma; this is child abuse.

There is no climate crisis. There is a human-created false narrative, a tempest, a global fraud.


#ClimateChange #IPCC #GlobalWarming #ClimateCrisis #Sustainability #NetZero #EPA #EndangermentFinding #CO2 #ClimatePolicy #EnergyPolicy #FossilFuel #Henry’sLaw

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